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Let us start by reviewing some properties of gases

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Let us start by reviewing some properties of gases. Gases have no definite shape orvolume; they tend to fill whatever container they are in. They can compress andexpand, sometimes to a great extent. Gases have extremely low densities, one-thousandth or less the density of a liquid or solid. Combinations of gases tend tomix together spontaneously; that is, they form solutions. Air, for example, is asolution of mostly nitrogen and oxygen. Any understanding of the properties ofgases must be able to explain these characteristics.Chapter 6 Gases287
6.1 Kinetic Theory of GasesLEARNING OBJECTIVES1.State the major concepts behind the kinetic theory of gases.2.Relate the general properties of gases to the kinetic theory.Gases were among the first substances studied in terms of the modern scientificmethod, which was developed in the 1600s. It did not take long to recognize thatgases all shared certain physical behaviors, suggesting that all gases could bedescribed by one all-encompassing theory. Today, that theory is thekinetic theoryof gases1. It is based on the following statements:1.Gases consist of tiny particles of matter that are in constant motion.2.Gas particles are constantly colliding with each other and the walls of acontainer. These collisions are elastic; that is, there is no net loss ofenergy from the collisions.3.Gas particles are separated by large distances, with the size of a gasparticle tiny compared to the distances that separate them.4.There are no interactive forces (i.e., attraction or repulsion) betweenthe particles of a gas.5.The average speed of gas particles is dependent on the temperature ofthe gas.Figure 6.1 "The Kinetic Theory of Gases"shows a representation of how we mentallypicture the gas phase.1. The fundamental model thatdescribes the physicalproperties of gases.Chapter 6 Gases288
Figure 6.1The Kinetic Theory of GasesThe kinetic theory of gases describes this state of matter as composed of tiny particles in constant motion with a lotof distance between the particles.This model of gases explains some of the physical properties of gases. Because mostof a gas is empty space, a gas has a low density and can expand or contract underthe appropriate influence. The fact that gas particles are in constant motion meansthat two or more gases will always mix, as the particles from the individual gasesmove and collide with each other.Anideal gas2is a gas that exactly follows the statements of the kinetic theory.Unfortunately,real gasesare not ideal. Many gases deviate slightly from agreeingperfectly with the kinetic theory of gases. However, most gases adhere to thestatements so well that the kinetic theory of gases is well accepted by the scientificcommunity.KEY TAKEAWAYSThe physical behavior of gases is explained by the kinetic theory ofgases.

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