Fvc the forced vital capacity is the total amount of

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FVC - The forced vital capacity is the total amount of air that the patient can exhale after a deep inspiration, when breathing out as quickly as possible. Hepatojugular Reflux – This is distention of the jugular vein induced by pressure over the liver. It suggests insufficiency of the right heart. Hepatomegaly - enlarged liver; common in right heart failure patients. Jugular Venous Distention - This is a bulging neck vein when the right ventricle fails to pump blood through the pulmonary circulation, which in turn backs up into the vein. Peripheral Pitting Edema – swelling of the dependent body part, usually the ankles and feet. It is commonly caused by chronic right heart failure where venous blood backs up. This increases the pressure gradient causing leakage of fluid into the interstitial space. Pleural Rub – This sound has a leathery quality. It has been compared to the sound made when two pieces of leather are rubbed together. It is believed to be caused by the surfaces of the pleura rubbing together. Normally these surfaces slide silently over each other. When they are inflammed the rubbing noise is made. Pneumonia – inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is usually caused by a microbial agent. In many cases, the term is modified to indicate a specific clinical setting, such as community-acquired pneumonia, nursing home pneumonia, pneumonia in the immunocompromised host, and aspiration pneumonia, among others. These terms are important because of differences in likely microbial agents, prognosis, and diagnostic evaluation. Other classifications are based on the tempo of the disease, such as acute, subacute, or chronic pneumonia. Classification may also be based on observations with radiographs or scans to characterize the changes as lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, interstitial pneumonia, or lung abscess and accompanying findings, such as hilar adenopathy, pleural fluid, or atelectasis. Pneumothorax – a state in which air or other gas is present in the pleural cavity and which occurs spontaneously as a result of disease of the lung or puncture of the chest wall or is induced as a therapeutic measure (as in the treatment of tuberculosis). Rhonchi (also known as sonorous rhonchi) - This term refers to a low pitched, snore-like sound which is commonly associated with secretions. It is a "continuous" sound, i.e. longer than 250 msec. The frequency is less than 200Hz.
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