Criminology Lecture Notes2

Broken window theory disorder breakdown of control

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Broken window theory: Disorder Breakdown of Control High Crime . Model tells us to focus on drunks, hookers, etc. . “They will use the streets less often, and when on the streets will stay apart from their fellows, moving with averted eyes, silent lips, and hurried steps. ‘Don’t get involved.’” – people just keep to themselves – constantly being assaulted by panhandlers . In these conditions, need PUBLIC control – responsibility falls on the police (his job is to exercise public control) . Police officer’s duties are too narrowly defined . Propose that it is necessary to allow police to exercise extraordinary measures – must be able to do things to target ordinary social disorders which may not be violating the law – should be out there picking up drunks, chasing panhandlers away – EXPANSION OF POLICE POWERS/DUTIES TO CLEAN UP SOCIAL DISORDERS . Aggressive Patrol . Police officers must be aggressive in patrolling “We Kick Ass” (Wilson and Kelling) . Sampson and Raudenbush . Collective Efficacy: “the linkage of cohesion and mutual trust with shared expectations for intervening in support of neighborhood social control” . Wilson and Kelling predict that Social disorder will directly cause crime . Sampson and Raudenbush find that there is no relationship between social disorder and homicide – Collective efficacy is what affects homicide rate – if one thing goes up, another thing will go down (if collective efficacy goes up, then both social disorder and homicide will decrease) . Spurious relationship between social disorder and homicide – spurious relationship is when two things are related because of one . Sampson and Raudenbush: Collective Efficacy Findings
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. Collective efficacy and social disorder have negative relationship . Collective efficacy and robbery have negative relationship . Social disorder and robbery have positive relationship (if social disorder increases, robbery increases) . Collective efficacy has a far greater impact on crime than social disorder alone . People in communities on the private and parochial level have more power over social disorder than the police . Role of the police in controlling crime is really far less than what we may realize . Most crime control is exercised by regular people (keeping friends in line, locking up property, watching others, etc.) . Police still have a role in maintaining communities Lecture 2/29/2012 . Cohen and Felson: The Routine Activities of Criminals and Victims . Routine Activity theory is more a Ecological theory . Deals with the placement of objects and people in space – it also involves a consideration of people through time – charts where people are in different places – in following people’s schedules in place and time, it identifies those locations and places where a motivated offender and a crime target may meet – finds where their paths would cross . Focus on objects that can be used to perpetrate a crime (ex. Motivated criminal offender utilizes a car in order to commit a crime) (ex. Power tools or kitchen tools)
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