B social control theory ability of social

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b. Social control theory - Ability of social institutions to influence human behavior. The justice system is the primary agency of formal social control. c. Social reaction labeling theory - Posits that society creates deviance through a system of social control agencies that designate (or label) certain individuals as delinquent, thereby stigmatizing them and encouraging them to accept this negative personal identity. 6. Social Conflict Theories 7. Feminist Theories a. Critical feminism - Holds that gender inequality stems from the unequal power of men and women and the subsequent exploitation of women by men; the cause of female delinquency originates with the onset of male supremacy and the efforts of males to control females’ sexuality. b. Egalitarian families - Husband and wife share power at home; daughters gain a kind of freedom similar to that of sons, and their law-violating behaviors mirror those of their brothers. c. Gender-schema theory - A theory of development that holds that children internalize gender scripts that reflect the gender-related social practices of the culture. Once internalized, these gender scripts predispose the kids to construct a self-identity that is consistent with them. d. Liberal feminism - Asserts that females are less delinquent than males, because their social roles provide them with fewer opportunities to commit crimes; as the roles of girls and women become more similar to those of boys and men, so too will their crime patterns
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e. Masculinity hypothesis - View that women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to those of men f. Power-control theory - Holds that gender differences in the delinquency rate are a function of class differences and economic conditions that influence the structure of family life. 8. Developmental Theories A. Life Course Theories 1. Problem behavior syndrome - A cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment, as well as delinquency. 2. Multiple pathways a. Authority conflict pathway - Pathway to delinquent deviance that begins at an early age with stubborn behavior and leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance. b. Covert pathway - Pathway to a delinquent career that begins with minor underhanded behavior, leads to property damage, and eventually escalates to more serious forms of theft and fraud. c. Social development model -The view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics. d. Interactional theory – e. Age-graded theory – f. Latent trait theory - The view that delinquent behavior is controlled by a “master trait,” present at birth or soon after, that remains stable and unchanging throughout a person’s lifetime.
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