Americans had a difficult time deciphering who was

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Americans had a difficult time deciphering who was neutral/ supporters/rebels Balangiga (1901) o Forty US soldiers killed while eating breakfast – classic case of Guerilla tactics o 2000-3000 Filipinos killed in reprisal (mostly civilian) Gen Jacob “Howling Wilderness” Smith o Wanted to leave the area around Balangiga a ‘Howling Wilderness’ – leave none above 10 alive Moro Crater Massacre (1906) o A lot of women and children killed 600-1000 Filipinos killed
American use of concentration camps o Contain rebellion and put everyone in prison camps o British also used these in South Africa Racism (‘gooks’) o Term originated during this period as a racial term for Filipinos o Saw it similar to the Indian War (civilized vs. savages) “Kill everyone over ten” – Gen. Jacob H Smith Images o Editorial cartoons White man’s burden o It was the ‘white man’s’ duty to uplift the ‘heathen’ peoples of this world Patterns in the Colonies Forced labor on public works o Pay people (not pay for volunteers) for building railroads and harbors Forced shifts from subsistence farming to cash crops, often on plantations o Mining Some rounded up and forced (paid, but low paid) to work in dangerous mines o Logging o Ranching o Famines All of this often lead to great famines When there weren’t harvests, local people often starved, and when there were good harvests, the white men took it and sold it on the local market Urban laborers Authoritarian government (often by democracies) Conclusion An era of global expansion for Europe and its settler colonies o Various kinds of imperialism o Immigration (demographic expansion) Sustained by violence (or the threat of it) Responses o Resistance
Sometimes extremely violent resistance o Collaboration and cooperation o Movements for independence As with China and Japan, a mix of rejecting some aspects of colonialism and trying to adopt and adapt other aspects For example, people in India began to use British ideals of freedom and democracy Imperialism, Race, and Heroism Images o Ethiopian acception (successful resistance of Italian invasion) o Some heroic images The Age of High Imperialism Introduction High Imperialism o Term that sometimes used to distinguish the character of colony building during this period o Greater control of colonies and more intensive exploitation Material Compared to colonies in the 1600s and 1700s , colonies during this time (late 1800s) were run with tighter control New technologies: telegraph, railroad o Social Darwinism Strong sense that they are not just superior technologically, but a strong sense that the world is ordered hierarchical World fares – countries, businesses would display goods Image from the St. Louis World Fair – strong sense of racial hierarchy (starts with Europeans and goes down with less advance peoples with less advanced societies o Religious and secular missionary/reform impulse

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