on a hilltop gazing at the heavens but sitting in his kitchen or, perhaps, on the toilet (for there is a philological dispute at this point!). He looked at their disappointed faces, saw that they were about to turn away their eyes, and said, "Come in, don't be afraid. There are gods here too." Aristotle uses this story to nudge his reluctant students out of the shame that is preventing them from looking closely at the parts of animals. When you get rid of your shame, he says, you will notice that there is order and structurein the animal world.3" So too, I think, with realism: the failure to take an interest in studying our practices of analyzing and reasoning, human and historical as they are, the insistence that we would have good arguments only if they came from heaven- all this betrays a shame before the human.On the other hand, if we really think of the hope of a transcendentground for value as uninteresting and irrelevant, as we should, then the news of its collapse will not changethe way we do things: it will just let us get on with the business of reasoning in which wewere already engaged.
AT: Genocide Impacts Democracy checks extermination impactO’Kane 97Prof Comparative Political Theory, U Keele, Rosemary, “Modernity, the Holocaust and politics,” Economy and Society 26:1, p 58-9Modern bureaucracy is not 'intrinsicallycapable of genocidalaction'(Bauman 1989: 106). Centralized state coercion has no natural move to terror.In the explanation of modern genocides it is chosen policies which play the greatest part, whether in effecting bureaucratic secrecy, organizing forced labour, implementing a system of terror, harnessing science and technology or introducing extermination policies, asmeans and as ends. As Nazi Germany and Stalin's USSR have shown,furthermore, those chosen policies of genocidal government turned away fromand not towards modernity. The choosing of policies, however, is not independent of circumstances. An analysis of the history of each case plays an important part in explaining where and how genocidal governments come to power and analysis of political institutions and structures also helps towards an understanding of the factors which act as obstacles to modern genocide. But it is not just political factorswhich stand in the way of another Holocaustin modern society. Modern societies havenot only pluralist democraticpolitical systemsbut also economic pluralism where workers are free to change jobs and bargain wages and where independent firms, each with their own independent bureaucracies, exist in competition with state-controlled enterprises. In modern societies this economic pluralism both promotes and is served by the open scientific method. By ignoring competition and the capacity for people to move between organizations whether economic, political, scientific or social, Bauman overlooks crucial but also very 'ordinary and common' attributes of truly modern societies. It is these very ordinary and common attributes of modernity which stand in the way of modern genocides.