In 1937, total war broke out. The Japanese captured Nanjing and forced Chiang into the rural west. At the same time, the Communists were establishing bases across the North of China to resist the Japanese. They attacked railways to disrupt Japanese transportation. The Japanese responded viciously with a scorched earth policy. The war dragged on for years - it ended decisively in China’s favor only when the USSR invaded Manchuria and the US declared war on Japan and dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Though China emerged victorious, it was economically weak. The Nationalists were left with the job of reconstruction, which they could not afford. The Communists had emerged from the war as a viable fighting force, due to their constant resistance to the Japanese (especially as compared to Chiang, who had followed a land-for-time policy). They were more popular, because they represented themselves as fighting unceasingly in defense of the people. Mao has learned during the War how to adapt communism to Chinese living conditions, and had built up an organizational base. Immediately after the War, Mao moved his forces from Yan’an, where he had established a base, to Manchuria, which was now Soviet-occupied. They were able to arm themselves with remaining Japanese equipment, establish control in the countryside, and encircle the KMT. This set the stage for the Chinese Civil War (1945-1949), which would result in a KMT retreat to Taiwan and communist victory on the mainland. 16. 1989 Tiananmen Uprising - started out of a nationwide student protest b/c elections were not “fair” - Communist party backed officials swept elections nationwide. Students also were protesting for democracy and random student stuff. In response, students camped out in Tiananmen Square. Initially, the protests were not as large, however, international media, hunger strikes, and word of mouth spread news of the uprising. In conclusion, Deng Xiaoping had Hu Yuobang purged for his “failure of handling the event” and had tanks brutally repress the uprising. 17. one-child policy - China limited population growth to increase per capita GDP and living standards. HOWEVER, there was massive backlash against this policy because farmers relied on their children to help in the fields as well as a form of social security. In addition, this lead to female infanticide because families wanted a male to continue the family name and help out in family matters. A national bureaucracy was created that had draconian measures such as forced sterilizations.
18. class labels - Mao created “Chinese caste system” in which the following labels were good (peasants, workers, cadres, soldiers, and marytrs) and the following were bad: (landlords, rich peasants, rightists, capitalists, and bad elements). The purpose of a class label was to prevent “privileged” persons to rise up in the Communist party. It was extremely hard to get rid of a class label. Those who were promoted in the party were of good class labels and mainly uneducated → they would rise through devotion.