part is then further broken down so that the chemical and physical properties

Part is then further broken down so that the chemical

This preview shows page 8 - 11 out of 38 pages.

part is then further broken down so that the chemical and physical properties of its molecules and the connections between them can be determined. Traditional view- led to most of the accomplishments of modern life science, has its limitations due to the assumption that detailed knowledge of all the properties of the parts will ultimately provide a complete understanding of the functioning of the whole. Primary functions of metabolism: - acquisition and utilization of energy - synthesis of molecules needed for cell structure and functioning (i.e. proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids) - growth and development
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- removal of waste products Laws of biochemistry/life: - life is complex and dynamic - life is organized and self-sustaining - life is cellular - life is information based - life adapts and evolves Peptide bonds are amide linkages that form in a type of nucleophilic substitution reaction in which the amino group nitrogen of one amino acid attacks the carbonyl carbon in the carboxyl group of another Hydrocarbon - the simplest type of organic molecule from which most biomolecules are derived - carbon and hydrogen containing molecules - hydrophobic - all other organic molecules are formed by attaching other atoms/groups of atoms to the carbon backbone of the hydrocarbon (chemical properties of derivative molecules determined by specific arrangements of functional groups- most biomolecules contain more than one functional group) Quiz 2 1) The excluded volume of a cell varies between and %. Correct answer: 20-40% Explanation: The interior space within cells is dense and crowded (macromolecular crowding). The concentrations of proteins, the dominant cell type of cellular macromolecules may be as high as 200-400 mg/ml. The term crowded rather than concentrated is used because macromolecules of each type are usually present in low numbers. The introduction of additional macromolecules under macromolecular crowding conditions is prevented by non- specific steric repulsion. Estimates of the volume occupied by macromolecules, called the excluded volume in individual cell types vary between 20-40%. Macromolecular crowding is believed to be an important factor in biochemical reaction rates, protein folding, protein-protein binding, chromosome structure, gene expression, and signal transduction.
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2) The plasma membrane . Correct answer: provides support and controls the flow of substances in and out of the cell. (present in eukaryotes and prokaryotes) 3) The main role of peroxisomes is . Correct answer: generation and destruction of peroxides Plasmid - small circular DNA in bacteria that exist outside the nucleoid and can replicate independently of the chromosome Nucleoid - spacious, irregularly shaped, centrally located region in prokaryotes containing long, circular DNA called a chromosome Endomembrane system - extensive set of interconnecting internal membranes that divide the cell into functional compartments (most organelles are part of this system, found in eukaryotes) Vesicles - membranous sacs that bud off from a door membrane
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