focus on how these factors could contribute to a police officer's capacity toidentify and solve neighborhood problems. By delineating a clear series ofsteps, from identifying community problems to choosing among a broadarray of alternative solutions to law enforcement, Goldstein showed howincreased cooperation between the police and community could do morethan reduce fear of crime. An intimate familiarity with local residents couldalso provide the police with an invaluable resource for identifying andsolving the underlying causes of seemingly unrelated and intractablecommunity problems. With its common emphasis on police-communitypartnerships, parts of the philosophy of problem-oriented policing werereadily incorporated into ideas about community policing.The beginnings of a coherent community policing approach(1980s).Interest in the development of community policing acceleratedwith the 1982 publication of an article entitled "Broken Windows."Published in a national magazine, The Atlantic Monthly, the article receiveda great deal of public exposure. Drawing upon the findings of the NewarkFoot Patrol Experiment, James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling constructeda compelling and highly readable argument challenging the traditionalcrime-fighting role of the police, and exploring the relationship betweensocial disorder, neighborhood decline, and crime.
According to Wilson and Kelling, officers on foot patrol should focus onproblems such as aggressive panhandling or teenagers loitering on streetcorners that reduce the quality of neighborhood life. Similar to a brokenwindow, the aggressive panhandler, or the rowdy group of teenagers,represent the initial signs of social disorder. Left unchecked they can makecitizens fearful for their personal safety and create the impression thatnobody cares about the neighborhood. Over time, this untended behaviorincreases the level of fear experienced by lawabiding citizens, who begin towithdraw from neighborhood life. As residents retreat inside their homes, oreven choose to leave the area altogether, local community controls enervateand disorderly elements take over the neighborhood. Eventually, thisprocess of neighborhood deterioration can lead to an increase in predatorycrime. Wilson and Kelling argue that by patrolling beats on foot andfocusing on initial problems of social disorder, the police can reduce fear ofcrime and stop the process of neighborhood decay.Goldstein's work and Wilson and Kelling's article sparked widespreadinterest in problem solving, foot patrol, and the relationship between thepolice and the community, all of which were becoming broadly associatedwith community policing. Police departments were quick to seize upon theideas and publicity generated by these scholars, and in the 1980s theyexperimented with numerous problem-and communityoriented initiatives. In1986 problem-oriented policing programs were implemented in BaltimoreCounty, Maryland, and Newport News, Virginia (Taft; Eck and Spelman). In
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