A map has a visual grammar or structure that must be understood and used if the

A map has a visual grammar or structure that must be

This preview shows page 35 - 51 out of 64 pages.

A map has a visual grammar or structure that must be understood and used if the best map design is desired.Cartographic convention (e.g. forests should be green).
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Map DesignA GIS map is designed in a process called the design loop.Good map design requires that map elements be placed in a balanced arrangement within the neat line.
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The Design LoopCreate map layoutDraw on screen (proof plot)LookEdit macroRepeat until happyMake final plot
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Graphic Editor SoftwareVectorAdobe IllustratorCorelDrawFreehandRasterPhotoshopCorelPaintFractal Paint
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Map Design (2)Visual balance is affected by:the "weight" of the symbolsthe visual hierarchy of the symbols and elementsthe location of the elements with respect to eachother and the visual center of the map
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Visual center5% of height5% of heightLandscapePortrait
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Visual LayoutTitle HereTitle HereEye expects (1) balance and (2) alignment
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Cartographic SymbolizationHue, value, chroma: relate to colorSize, texture (spacing of symbol markings): displaying quantitative data (ordinal, interval, ratio)Shape, pattern (type of symbol markings): displaying qualitative (nominal) data
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Color and Map DesignCartographic convention in color usageColor is a complex visual variable and in a GIS is specified by RGB or HSI values.Red, Green, Blue are additive primaries.Magenta, Cyan and Yellow are subtractive primaries.Saturation and Intensity map better onto values than hue.
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Dimensions of ColorHUESATURATIONINTENSITY
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ColorHue: quality that distinguishes one color from another – red from blueDominant wavelength of lightDifferent hues for different data
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ColorValue: lightness or darkness of color, black at lower end, white at higher endDarker symbols more importantChroma (saturation/intensity): richness or brilliance of a colorHigher intensity symbols – greater visual importance
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Raster dataChoice of visual variables limited Shape, size do not apply due to use of cellsTexture, pattern difficult in very small cellsVisualization limited to colors or shades of colors
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TextTypeface: serif or sans serifType weight: bold, regular, lightType width: condensed or extended; upright (roman) or standing (italic), uppercase or lowercaseFont: complete set of all variants of a given typeface and type sizePlacement of text (labels)Alignment of text (labels)
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The look of the map is not harmonious because of the use of too many typefaces.
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Dynamic labeling of major cities in the United States. The initial result
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  • Cartography, choropleth map, map design, Isopleth Map, Hypsometric Map

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