o Fortissimo-ff-very loud o Forte-f-loud o Mezzo forte-mf-moderately loud o Mezzo piano-mp-moderately soft o Piano-p-soft o Pianissimo-pp-very soft 62. Sforzando: a sudden, loud attack on one note or chord 63. Color: the tone quality of any sound produced by a voice or instrument 64. Timbre: another term for the tone quality of musical sound 65. Soprano and alto: 2 womens vocal parts 66. Tenor and bass: two mens vocal parts 67. Chorus: many voices join together 68. Mezzo-soprano: a separate vocal range 69. Baritone: notes adjoining the tenor and bass 70. Musical instruments: o Violin: smallest among string instruments • Shortest strings and highest pitch o Viola: 6 inches longer than the violin and produces a somewhat lower sound
o Cello: big violin o Double bass: gives weight and power to the bass line in the orchestra 71. Special effects: o Vibrato: by shaking the left hand as it stops the string o Pizzicato: performer plucks strings o Tremolo: created by rapidly repeating the same pitch with quick up and down strokes of the bow o Trill: performer rapidly alternates btwn 2 separate but neighboring pitches o Mute: dampens the penetrating tone of a string instrument. 72. Orchestral score: composite notation of all the instrumental parts for a particular piece Chapter 6: 73. Texture: the density and disposition of the musical lines that make up a musical composition 74. Monophony: a single line of music, with no accompaniment 75. Unison: singing the same pitches together 76. Polyphony: requires two or more lines in the musical fabric 77. Counterpoint: the harmonious opposition of two or more independent musical lines 78. Canon: a leading voice begins followed by one or more other voices that duplicate what the first voice presented. 79. Homophony: the voices or lines move to new pitches at roughly the same time 80. Form: the purposeful arrangement of important musical events 81. Repetition: usually sets forth the formal guideposts within a piece, declaring each return an important musical event 82. Contrast: takes us away from the familiar and into the unknown. A quiet melody in the strings can suddenly be followed by an insistent theme. 83. Variation: the original melody returns but is altered in some way 84. Strophic form: the composer sets the words of the first stanza and then uses the same entire melody for all subsequent stanzas 85. Theme and variations: if the music of the first stanza is altered in some way each time it returns 86. Binary form: consists of two contrasting units, A and B. in length and shape, A and B are constructed so as to balance and complement each other 87. Ternary form: consists of three sections. The formal pattern is ABA 88. Rondo form: a refrain (A) alternates with contrasting music. ABACA ABACABA ABACADA 89. Style: the distinctive sound produced by the interaction of the elements in music
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- Spring '08
- Music, pitches, Musical notation, acoustic instruments, preset musical notation, classical musical recordings