treat inmates fairly and respect legal rights (grievance procedures) ○ Administration & management : administer and manage facilities in a professional manner (staff training) Prisons ● Security levels of prisons : minimum (25% of inmates. emphasis on education and work), low, medium (50% of inmates. More freedom than max), max (25% of inmates. Goal is to prevent escape. Very little freedom), administrative ● Types of classification : ○ External - decides security level institution inmate will be placed in ○ Internal - for special housing areas, programs, and work assignments ● Elements for classification for security level determination : court recommendation, severity of offense, criminal history, history of violence, history of escape, age, education level, drug/ alcohol abuse in last 5 years ● Prison privatization : government contracts with third party to manage jail. ○ Advantages: cheaper for the government, can be safer, better living conditions, and lower rates of repeat offenders. Typically house less violent offenders. ○ Disadvantages : potentially unjust treatment for sake of profit. No oversight on how the third party is spending the money given to them. Belief that they extend sentences to keep offenders in prison so they can keep getting more money. ● Prison subculture : customs, beliefs, attitudes, values and lifestyles of the prison inmates. ○ Importation : values and behaviors of the inmate community are brought in from outside the walls ○ Deprivation : subculture arises within the prison in response to the pains and deprivations of incarceration (liberty, autonomy, security, goods and services) ○ Integrated model : prison violence= correctional staff and management + inmates + environment they share ● Inmate code : set of norms and values developed within the prison social system help to define the convicts image of the model prisoner ● Prisonization : process through which new inmates learn prison subculture. 5 elements: ○ Don't interfere with interests of other inmates ○ Play it cool ○ Don't whine
○ Don't exploit inmates ○ Don't be a sucker ● Prison argot : prison language/ jargon ● Adaptive roles of inmates : doing time, gleaning(uses prison programs and opportunities), jailing(cut themselves off from outside world and try to construct a life inside prison), disorganized criminal(can't adjust to prison life) ● Prison violence : young males 16-24 prone to violence. Subculture of violence among socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic groups ○ Types of violence in prison : ■ Inmate-inmate : prison gangs, protective custody only way to escape ■ Inmate-officer : typically occur in specific situations against certain individuals. Authority of officer may be reduced after ■ Officer-inmate: what is legitimate force? ○ Measures to prevent prison violence : improve classification, create opportunities for fearful inmates to seek assistance, redesign facilities, augment a reward system to reduce pains of incarceration.
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- Fall '19