50 summary in this unit you have learnt i the two

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5.0 Summary In this unit you have learnt: (i) The two models of the solid earth drawn from the chemical composition information and ability of the materials to flow. (ii) That earth crust is not homogeneous based on evidences such as density Variation. (iii) The formations of the continent and as major surface features of the solid Earth. (iv) The global distributions of the continents and ocean. (v) The meanings of ellipsoid, geoids and elevation, the major sequence of the earth’s surface. 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment (i) Sketch a model of the solid earth based on the chemical composition showing the 5 major internal features, thickness and an ocean. (ii) Explain three major significant effects of the outer core to the scientific observations on the earth.
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- 41 - 7.0 Further Reading and Resources Gerken, J.C d’Arnaud, (1989): Foundation of Exploration Geophysics : Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers. Lawyer, L.C.,Bates, Charles, C. and Rice, Robert, B. (2001): Geophysics in the Affairs of Mankind. Society Exploration Geophysicists . Tulsa, Oklahoma. Vanček, P. and Krakiwsky, E.j. (1986): Geodesy: The concepts.2. rev. ed., Elseevier Scient. Publ. comp., Amsterdam.
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- 42 - Module 1: Earth: Internal Structure and Constitution, Densities: Rocks And Ores Unit 4: Variation of some physical properties within the solid earth . 3.0 Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 4.0 Objective-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 3.1 Variation of Density with depth. ---------------------------------------------------2 3.2 Variation of pressure P with depth -------------------------------------------------------4 3.3 Variation of Acceleration due to gravity with depth-----------------------------------4 3.4 Variation of Pressure P and S waves with depth----------------------------------------4 3.5 Self Assessment Exercise------------------------------------------------------------------6 4.0 Conclusion-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 5.0 Summary -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 6.0 Tutor marked assignment ------------------------------------------------------------------7 7.0 Further readings and other resources. ----------------------------------------------------7
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- 43 - 1.0 Introduction Some parameters vary with depth (i.e. radius of earth).Measurement of these on the surface gives due to the structure of the underlying interior of the earth. The deals with variation of density pressure, gravitational field, Velocity and temperature with depth within the earth’s rocks. 2.0 Objectives At the end of this unit you should be able to: (1) describe the trend of variation of pressure, density, gravitational field, and seismic velocity as well and with depth in the solid earth. (2) derive the mathematical relations for the variation of parameter itemised in (1) (3) Apply the mathematical formula to real life events 3.1 Variation of Density with depth Consider density dependent on pressure P and temperature T. That is ) 1 ( ) , ( T P Assuming that the stress in the earth’s interior is equal to hydrostatic pressure ), ( g h then pressure gradient towards the centre of the earth. ) 2 ( g dr dp r is the radius of the earth. The negative sign implies pressure increase with decrease in radius. Consider a homogeneous layer in which the t temperature variation is adiabatic then.
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- 44 - e i p dp dp v dv dp .
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