MGTS
Managing Public Issues and Stakeholder Relationships.docx

Democracy the presence of political freedom 民?

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Democracy – The presence of political freedom 民主 - 政治自由 The primary meaning of democracy is that 只要受决策影响 都有权参与决策 all who are affected by a decision should have the right to participate in making that decision, either directly or through representatives they have chosen (Lewis, A.) Four defining features of democracy (U.N.) Military dictatorships : Repressive regimes ruled by dictators who exercise total power through control of the armed forces. (Zimbabwe and Uzbekistan) Right of citizens to organize for cultural or religious freedoms is restricted in others. (Syria, Saudi Arabia) According to United Nations estimates, 106 countries still
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limit important civil and political freedoms. (Kim Jong-il Chairman National Defense Commission) Human Rights - society Degree to which human rights are protected differs greatly among nations. Many violations of human rights still occur: Several international codes of human rights exist. o United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 o Over half world’s nations have adopted these human rights covenants Control of economic assets or economic freedom Free enterprise systems ▪Based on the principle of voluntary association and exchange. ▪Members of society satisfy most of their economic needs through voluntary market transactions. Central state control ▪Economic power is concentrated in the hands of government officials and political authorities. ▪The central government owns the property that is used to produce goods and services. Is this Authoritarian Capitalism Authoritarian capitalism = Market economy combined with political control by nonelected elites Historical change points Gorbachev became general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in March 1985 - Program of “perestroika” (“restructuring”) and “glasnost” (“openness”). 9 November 1989 East Germany allowed East and West Germans to visit each other. Berlin wall fell. 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, which dissolved into 15 individual republics. Index of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation 2015) Has scored the nations of the world according to an Index of Economic Freedom:
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the fundamental rights of every human being to control his or her own labor and property. Among the freest nations in 2015: Hong Kong, Singapore, and New Zealand. Among the most repressed were Cuba, Venezuela, and—the least free in the world—North Korea. The United States ranked twelfth out of 178 countries. Collaborative Partnerships for Global Problem Solving Emerging trend for development of collaborative, multi- sector partnerships focused on particular social issues or problems in the global economy. These partnerships have been termed global action networks, or GANs. Involves 3 sectors: Business Government Civil Society Civil society : comprises nonprofit, educational, religious, community, family, and interest-group organizations. Distinctive Attributes of the Three Major S
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