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4. Provides information on the strengths and weaknesses of students with a view to applying immediate corrective measures. 5. Provides reliable information about students on the basis of which guidance services can be rendered by the teacher and the school counsellor. 3.3 Problems of Continuous AssessmentOperation of continuous assessment can be linked with problems in the following areas: 1. Use of different standards of measuring performance from school to school. 2. Transfer among students from school to school. 3. Task of operating continuous assessment without appropriate remuneration to the teachers. 4. Insufficient provision of materials and the financial cost of applying continuous assessment procedures. 5. Poor teacher and teaching qualities in schools. 6. Lack of standardization of most continuous assessment tests and grades. 4.0 CONCLUSIONThere is no doubt that Continuous Assessment is a better form of gathering reliable information on the educational attainment of students inschools rather than just using a single shot examination. It is however important to state that for Continuous Assessment scores to serve the purpose it is meant, no aspect of its
81 81 5.0 SUMMARYIt was mentioned in this unit that every aspect of the knowledge of continuous assessment in school is important for practitioners to be able to operate it well right from the meaning of the concept Continuous Assessment, to the methods, the problem, uses and role of the teachers. A proper understanding of each area of continuous assessment will help both the teacher and the student and will also make learning more practical and meaningful while scores obtained in respect of each student would be more reliable. Problems mentioned in the unit for the operations of continuous assessment are important for the stakeholders to consider so that there can always be an improvement with the way continuous assessment is operated in the Schools. SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISE1. What is Continuous Assessment? 2. Mention five methods by which Continuous Assessment can be obtained. 3. State five reasons why Continuous Assessment is preferable to the one single shot examination. 6.0 TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT(1) State five reasons why Continuous Assessment is preferable to the one single shot examination of determining students’ academic performance. 7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGSBloom, B. S (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain: New York Mackey. Ipaye, T. (1985). An evaluation of Continuous Assessment in Schools. Education Today 1, 49 - 53.
80 80 UNIT 6HISTORICAL AND THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCECONTENTS1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Historical developments of Malawi Vocational Guidance in 3.2 Theoretical development of Vocational Guidance 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 7.0 References/Further Readings 1.0 INTRODUCTIONVocational Guidance is a very crucial aspect of the help giving service (Guidance and Counselling). This is because it is concerned with