Preceding section the latter species is known on king

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preceding section, the latter species is known on King Island from a single mature individual and two juvenile plants in the Grassy River catchment. The threats noted for Cyathea cunninghamii on King Island are equally applicable to Cyathea x marcescens. Recovery Actions specific to King Island Provide information and extension support to the King Island Natural Resource Management committee, King Island council, Government agencies and the local community on the location, significance and management of the known subpopulation and areas of potential habitat; Identify the Grassy River site as a fire-exclusion zone within the King Island Wildfire Management Plan and, in the event of wildfire, where practicable take measures to protect the site; Negotiate with landholders to ensure the Grassy River site is protected. Encourage landholders to consider protection of habitat through a vegetation management agreement or conservation covenant under the Tasmanian Nature Conservation Act 2002 ; Ensure the known site is secure from cattle and check the condition of existing fences annually; Determine the extent and impact of asparagus fern in the vicinity of the known site and treat as required; Monitor the known site annually to determine the level of recruitment and/or plant loss; if monitoring identifies a decline, then adopt an adaptive management approach to minimise the impacts of threats. King Island Biodiversity Management Plan 121
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Hypolepis distans (scrambling groundfern) Description Hypolepis distans is a terrestrial fern in the Dennstaedtiaceae family. It is known in Australia from Tasmania’s northwest, including King Island. Recruitment appears to be primarily from rhizomes. The species’ distinctive leaf venation and habit allows it to be identified in the absence of fertile material. Hypolepis distans has a creeping, slender rhizome that is covered in dark, red- brown hairs. Its erect herbaceous fronds are distributed along the rhizome, and are 30–60 cm long; stipe fine and rough, red-brown, glossy, with sparse hairs. Lamina mid-green in colour, oblong-lanceolate, bipinnate (to tripinnate) with distant pinnae, opposite (or nearly so) and almost perpendicular to the axis. The lowermost pinnae are frequently dead before those near the tip have matured; rachis red-brown, grooved, sparsely hairy. Pinnae are rather distant and subopposite; pinnules oblong with lobed margins, the veins ending in slight indentations. Sori conspicuous, arranged in two rows on the larger pinnules, spherical, each partly protected by the membranous, reflexed, irregular margin of a lobe (Duncan & Isaac 1986). The common name of scrambling groundfern refers to the species’ habit of scrambling up through surrounding vegetation (to a height of 2 or 3 m) or forming tangled mounds, a consequence of its rather weak stipes (Plate 3).
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