12 among them dan ben amos 13 law and taylor

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12. Among them Dan Ben-Amos. 13. Law and Taylor published a book about their craft: Appalachian White Oak Basketmaking (1991). 14. Alan Dundes talks in more detail about part-time folk groups in “Who Are the Folk?” (1980). 15. Some of these ideas have been challenged: see “Functionalism” in chapter 6, “Approaches to Interpreting Folklore.” 16. If you have seen the film High Fidelity (directed by Stephen Frears 2000) or read the novel upon which it was based (Nick Hornby 1995), you may be familiar with the
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LIVING FOLKLORE 310 behavior of a group of fictional record store employees. These fictional employees have their own folklore, similar to the types of folklore shared by other retail occu- pational groups. 17. Bonnie Blair O’Connor (1995) provides a model for less ethnocentric belief study, incorporating and valuing a community’s own ideas about its health-related beliefs and practices. Her work illustrates the necessity of being aware of how various belief systems within and outside a group support, oppose, and otherwise interact with each other. 18. The term cultural evolution has often been used to describe the assumption that human societies develop along a timeline, from less sophisticated to sophisticated, or primi- tive to civilized. Romantic era notions of cultural evolution assumed the opposite, that humans had de-evolved from a pure, natural state to a corrupt, artificial state. We dis- cuss these theories in more depth elsewhere in this chapter. 19. Dundes presents this definition in several essays. See, for example, “Brown County Superstitions” (1961); and “Structural Typology” (1963). 20. This category of narrative was originally referred to by the term urban legend ; how- ever, most folklorists prefer the term contemporary legend , since the stories are about contemporary events that take place in contemporary settings, but not always in urban areas. 21. Turner refers to the work of Brunvand (1981), Gary Alan Fine (1980), and Koenig (1985) to show how widely known and studied the Kentucky Fried Rat legend is. 22. Elizabeth Chiseri-Strater and Bonnie Stone Sunstein also draw on the work of Geertz, as well as Ruth Benedict, Barbara Myerhoff, and Ward Goodenough, to visualize culture as “an invisible web of behaviors, patterns, rules and rituals of a group of people who have contact with each other and share common languages” (2001, 3). 23. To avoid the connotations of “making things up” or “fakeness” that the term invention can imply, some folklorists prefer the term emergent tradition to describe and discuss the ways traditions change and arise within groups. See chapter 5, “Performance,” for more discussion of emergence. 24. See, for example, Thomas, “Ride ’Em Barbie Girl” (2000). 25. Folklorists, fine artists, anthropologists, and others who study the work of self-taught artists debate the term used to identify such artists. Labels such as “outsider,” “vision- ary,” “art brute,” and “primitive,” to name a few, join “folk” as terms for debate. (See, for example, the work of Henry Glassie, Michael Owen Jones, and Simon Bronner.) 26.

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