However, uncertainties, especially in the diplomatic and military situation in Southeast Asia, in the level of U.S.commitment to the future Republic of the Philippines, and in the economy due to the Great Depression, provedto be major problems. The situation was further complicated by the presence of agrarian unrest, and of powerstruggles between Osmeña and Quezon,especially after Quezon was permitted to be re-elected after onesix-year term.A proper evaluation of the policies' effectiveness or failure is difficult due to Japanese invasionand occupationduring World War II.World War IIJapanlaunched a surprise attack on the Philippineson December 8, 1941. The Commonwealth governmentdrafted the Philippine Armyinto the U.S. Army Forces Far East, which would resist Japanese occupation.Manila was declared an open cityto prevent its destruction,and it was occupied by the Japanese on January
2, 1942.Meanwhile, battles against the Japanese continued on the Bataan Peninsula, Corregidor,and Leyteuntil the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces on May 1942.Quezon and Osmeña were escorted by troops from Manila to Corregidor, and later they left for Australia andthen the U.S. There they set up a government in exile,which participated in the Pacific War Councilas wellas the Declaration by United Nations. During this exile, Quezon became ill with tuberculosis, and later on, hedied because of it, then, Osmeña replaced him as the president.Meanwhile, the Japanese military organized a new government in the Philippines known as the SecondPhilippine Republic, which was headed by president José P. Laurel. This government ended up being veryunpopular.The resistance to the Japanese occupation continued in the Philippines. This included the Hukbalahap("People'sArmy Against the Japanese"), which consisted of 30,000 armed people and controlled much of Central Luzon.Remnants of the Philippine Army also successfully fought the Japanese through guerrilla warfareliberatingall but 12 of the 48 provinces.General MacArthur and President Osmeña returning to the PhilippinesThe American GeneralDouglas MacArthur's army landed on Leyte on October 20, 1944, and they were allwelcomed as liberators,along with Philippine Commonwealth troops when other amphibious landingssoonfollowed. Fighting continued in remote corners of the Philippines until Japan's surrender in August 1945, whichwas signed on September 2 in Tokyo Bay. Estimates for Filipino casualties reached one million, and Manila wasextensively damaged when certain Japanese forces refused to vacate the city (against their orders from theJapanese High Command).After the War in the Philippinesthe Commonwealth was restored and a one-year transitional period inpreparation for independence began. Elections followed in April 1946 with Manuel Roxaswinning as the firstpresident of the independent Republic of the Philippinesand Elpidio Quirinowinning as vice-president. In spiteof the years of Japanese occupation, the Philippines became independent exactly as scheduled a decade before,on July 4, 1946.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 7 pages?