Practitioners focused on psychosocial work to

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practitioners focused on psychosocial work to consider referrals and linkages to clinical services where appropriate. As Wietse Tol noted in an interview, the Guidelines “incorporate views from both the psychiatric and psychosocial paradigms. So now we have this public health framework with primary, secondary and tertiary preventive interventions and the psychosocial practitioners seem comfortable at the bottom of the pyramid and the specialised mental health professionals seem more comfortable at the top but at least they realise that they're all part of the same pyramid working towards the same goal. So, I think it's been a very helpful exercise.” 80 80 Interview, July 26 2012. Libya / Misrata / Women and a child from Misrata walk through Tripoli. © UNHCR/ H. Caux / June 1, 2011 30 UNHCR’S MENTAL HEALTH AND PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT FOR PERSONS OF CONCERN
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TEXTBOX 7 The 4Ws: mapping MHPSS activities The IASC MHPSS Reference Group developed the 4Ws tool, to map who is where, when, doing what in the field of MHPSS activities. As listed in the guide, the tool can serve the following purposes: Providing a big picture of the size and nature of the MHPSS response Identifying gaps in the MHPSS response to enable coordinated action Enabling referrals by making information available about who is where, when, doing what Informing appeal processes (e.g. Consolidated Appeal Process) Improving transparency and legitimacy of MHPSS through structured documentation Improving possibilities for reviewing patterns of practice and for drawing lessons for future response. 81 In summary, the 4Ws mapping tool “enables actors to identify and respond to gaps in services and foster collaboration, coordination, referral and accountability.” 82 The 4Ws tool was developed after the IASC Guidelines, and has provided a means for co-ordination and communication as endorsed by the Guidelines, as well as a way of understanding the focus, scope and approach of MHPSS activities in a number of humanitarian settings. The “what” is divided into activities that are community-focused, such as safe spaces, strengthening family and community supports, and information dissemination, and person-focused, including individual counselling, psychological first aid, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of mental disorders, and in-patient mental health care. 4Ws mapping exercises have been conducted in Haiti, 83 Dadaab (Kenya), Nepal, Jordan, 84 and Libya. 85 Findings and impacts of the process have been varied. In Haiti, the information was used for advocacy and influenced broader humanitarian response. In Syria, a 2011 4Ws focused on MHPSS activities for Iraqi refugees showed geographic inequities in services. 86 Mapping in Libya showed that activities were disproportionately focused on specialised mental health services, and the process resulted in improved linkages between actors providing services in the field.
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  • Fall '19
  • Humanitarian aid, psychosocial support

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