100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 30 - 33 out of 41 pages.
Siblings are very common (a lot of kids are living with a single mother and siblings / only 70% of kids live with a father figure) o82% of kids under 18 are living with a siblingo40% have 1 siblingo25% have 2 siblingso15% have 3+ siblings Sibling TogethernessoAt age 11, kids spend of free time with siblings⅓more time than they spend with parents, teachers, friends and aloneoAdolescents spend ~10 hours per week togethermore in Mexican-American families (~17 hours)
oHome observation of brother and sisters, age 3-7 years o45 minutes of playo3 sequential hostile exchanges = conflict oconflict every 17 minutes o2-4 year old age group has conflict every 10 minutes Sibling Conflict Resolution o62 pairs of sibling aged: 4-7, 6-8, 7-10 years o10 minutes to discuss recurring argument in an observation room oAverage negotiation: 2 minutes 4 seconds oCompromise: 32 pairs oWin/lose: 13 pairs oUnproductive: 3 pairs oStandoff: 11 pairs oWhen parents intervene, average negotiation time increases Birth Order oFirst order – reliable, conscientious, structured, cautious, controlling, achieversoMiddle Children – people-pleasers, somewhat rebellious, has large social circle, peacemakeroLast born – fun-loving, uncomplicated, manipulative, outgoing, attention-seeker, self-centered oOnly Children – mature for their age, perfectionists, conscientious, diligent, leaders CompetitionoSiblings dilute resources available to each childThis limits their achievement (e.g. lower educational and occupational attainment)
oTo reduce competition, siblings differentiate or de-identify, developing different qualities and choosing different nichesfirst child becomes a football player and the other child becomes a student council president (totally different) Siblings with disability or illnessotypically developing kids with a chronically ill or disabled siblings have positive and negative outcomesmore warmth and positive affect than typical-only dyadsslightly elevated risk of adjustment problems oAn atypical sibling may lead to more variation in child outcomes Martial EffectsoUnclear whether parental divorce leads to better or worse sibling relationships – results are mixedoParental conflict and parent-child conflict is associated with more sibling conflictBut sometimes parental conflict leads siblings to form close protective relationships Sibling interactionofosters development of perspective taking, emotion understanding, negotiation, persuasion, and problem solving oClassic 1983 studyo40 dyads of mixed-sex undergradso5 min videotaped initial meeting followed by questionnaires oPeople with an older opposite-sex sibling were most likely to have a good interaction oLastborn men talked twice as long, asked more questions, evoked more gazes, verbal rein forcers, and self-reported liking from female partners oLastborn women more likely to initiate the interaction and to smile more than their male partners Sibling influence o