Siblings are very common a lot of kids are living with a single mother and

Siblings are very common a lot of kids are living

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Siblings are very common (a lot of kids are living with a single mother and siblings / only 70% of kids live with a father figure) o 82% of kids under 18 are living with a sibling o 40% have 1 sibling o 25% have 2 siblings o 15% have 3+ siblings Sibling Togetherness o At age 11, kids spend of free time with siblings more time than they spend with parents, teachers, friends and alone o Adolescents spend ~10 hours per week together more in Mexican-American families (~17 hours)
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o Home observation of brother and sisters, age 3-7 years o 45 minutes of play o 3 sequential hostile exchanges = conflict o conflict every 17 minutes o 2-4 year old age group has conflict every 10 minutes Sibling Conflict Resolution o 62 pairs of sibling aged: 4-7, 6-8, 7-10 years o 10 minutes to discuss recurring argument in an observation room o Average negotiation: 2 minutes 4 seconds o Compromise: 32 pairs o Win/lose: 13 pairs o Unproductive: 3 pairs o Standoff: 11 pairs o When parents intervene, average negotiation time increases Birth Order o First order – reliable, conscientious, structured, cautious, controlling, achievers o Middle Children – people-pleasers, somewhat rebellious, has large social circle, peacemaker o Last born – fun-loving, uncomplicated, manipulative, outgoing, attention-seeker, self-centered o Only Children – mature for their age, perfectionists, conscientious, diligent, leaders Competition o Siblings dilute resources available to each child This limits their achievement (e.g. lower educational and occupational attainment)
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o To reduce competition, siblings differentiate or de-identify, developing different qualities and choosing different niches first child becomes a football player and the other child becomes a student council president (totally different) Siblings with disability or illness o typically developing kids with a chronically ill or disabled siblings have positive and negative outcomes more warmth and positive affect than typical-only dyads slightly elevated risk of adjustment problems o An atypical sibling may lead to more variation in child outcomes Martial Effects o Unclear whether parental divorce leads to better or worse sibling relationships – results are mixed o Parental conflict and parent-child conflict is associated with more sibling conflict But sometimes parental conflict leads siblings to form close protective relationships Sibling interaction o fosters development of perspective taking, emotion understanding, negotiation, persuasion, and problem solving o Classic 1983 study o 40 dyads of mixed-sex undergrads o 5 min videotaped initial meeting followed by questionnaires o People with an older opposite-sex sibling were most likely to have a good interaction o Lastborn men talked twice as long, asked more questions, evoked more gazes, verbal rein forcers, and self-reported liking from female partners o Lastborn women more likely to initiate the interaction and to smile more than their male partners Sibling influence o
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