of the test ranges from 75% to 90%, with specificity ranging between 90% and 95% (Tsuruda et al., 2019). These positive predictive values are indications that mammography is an effective diagnostic and screening test for breast cancer. Further, in terms of predictive values in the use of mammograms, Lehman et al. (2012) assert that screening and diagnostic tests using mammograms are highly accurate in breast cancer detection since sensitivity is high at 97%, with a positive predictive value of 89% and this is an indication of an effective and reliable tool. Conclusion The paper has provided a comprehensive outline of the use of mammograms as both screening and diagnostic tests for breast cancer. The process of conducting a mammogram has been outlined, and explanations provided on how the information derived from the test is used in determining whether the patient has breast cancer or not. The evaluation of mammograms in terms of validity and reliability indicates that the test is an accurate and consistent test that can be used in the diagnosis and screening for breast cancer. References
ASSESSMENT TOOL AND DIAGNOSTIC 6 Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Seidel's guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). What is a mammogram. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from Lehman, C. D., Wellman, R. D., Buist, D. S., Kerlikowske, K., Tosteson, A. N., & Miglioretti, D. L. (2015). Diagnostic accuracy of digital screening mammography with and without computer-aided detection. JAMA internal medicine , 175 (11), 1828-1837. National Cancer Institute. (2016). Mammograms. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from Tsuruda, K. M., Sagstad, S., Sebuødegård, S., & Hofvind, S. (2018). Validity and reliability of self-reported health indicators among women attending organized mammographic screening. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health , 46 (7), 744-751.
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