Presynaptic cell becomes better able to stimulate the

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Presynaptic cell becomes better able to stimulate the post-synaptic cell - Donald Hebb : made the first hypothesis about synaptic function in the human brain; cells that fire together, wire together Structural changes include: - More receptors in the post-synaptic cell membrane - Increase in dendritic branching and spines - Increase in axonal branching - Formation of new synapses Memory Consolidation - Neural changes associated with long-term potentiation take time to develop - Sleep plays a role in ensuring consolidation new information - Long-term memories are also vulnerable to disruption or distortion; Memories may not ever completely solidify The very act of remembering can make memories unstable again Brain Areas Involved in Memory - Amygdala: Memories of fearful and other emotional events - Basal Ganglia (caudate putamen, globus pallidus): Procedural memory (new skills), and implicit learning of patterns and habits - Frontal Lobe: Short-term memory and working memory - Prefrontal Cortex and Parts of Temporal Lobe: Semantic(meaning) memory (words and pictures: names of objects, appearance of objects) - Cerebellum: Learning of classically conditioned responses - Hippocampus (and surrounding areas in temporal lobe): Critical in spatial learning and memory Critical in long-term declarative memories—formation and recall - Specialization explains how memory impairments can be so selective
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L-T Declarative Memory Storage - Probably takes place in cortical areas, not in the hippocampus - These areas would have been active during the original perception of the information or event - Cortical cells activated during exposure to new information are also activated during retrieval Memories are Distributed - The typical memory is a complex cluster of information—visual, auditory, etc. - The various components of a memory are likely stored at different sites - Hippocampus may bind together diverse aspects of a memory during encoding Mnemonic Device: Association between two words to help remember Mnemonics: Formal strategies and tricks for enhancing storage and recall (ex. Keyword method) - Use of visual imagery - Making associations - Rhymes or songs Method of Loci - Visualize as you walk through house, or follow a familiar route, in your mind Effective Encoding: - Allocation of attention (automatic or effortful) - Retrieval Practice - Rehearsal (maintenance and elaboration) - Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information already stored in memory How info relates to what you already know Giving examples Related to ‘levels-of-processing theory’; the deeper the encoding, the better the memory Levels of Processing Study, Craik and Lockhart, 1972 - Subjects given long lists of words to make judgement about - Groups were given different things to pay attention to when reading the list - Results: Structural Encoding (shallow): physical structure of the word Phonemic Encoding (medium): sound of word Semantic Encoding (deep): meaning of word - The deeper the encoding, the more words remembered Encoding -
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