F i g u r e 1 3 asymmetrical balance around an axis

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F I G U R E 1 3 . Asymmetrical balance around an axis Perspective balance Perspective balance is concerned with the balance of the foreground, midground, and background. When looking at a composition, the objects in front usually have greater visual weight because they are closer to the viewer. This can be balanced, if desired, by using larger objects, brighter colors, or coarse texture in the background. In most cases, either the foreground or background should be dominant. Mass collection Mass collection is the grouping of features based on similarities and then arranging the groups around a central space or feature. A good example is the organization of plant material in masses around an open circular lawn area or an open gravel seating area. Repetition Repetition is created by the repeated use of elements or features to create patterns or a sequence in the landscape. Repeating line, form, color, and texture creates rhythm in the landscape. Repetition must be used with care—too much repetition can create monotony, and too little can create confusion. Simple repetition is the use of the same object in a line or the grouping of a geometric form, such as a square, in an organized pattern. Repetition can be made more interesting by using alternation, which is a minor change in the sequence on a regular basis—for example, using a square form in a line with a circular form inserted every fifth square. Inversion is another type of alternation where selected elements are changed so the characteristics are opposite the original elements. An example might be a row of vase-shaped plants and pyramidal plants in an ordered sequence. Gradation, which is the gradual change in certain characteristics of a feature, is another way to make repetition more interesting. An example would be the use of a square form that gradually becomes smaller or larger. Repetition does not always create a pattern; sometimes it is simply the repeated use of the same color, texture, or form throughout the landscape. Figure 14 illustrates repetition of a square form in an entry courtyard, lawn panels, a patio, and a water feature.
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9 F I G U R E 1 4 . Repetition of square form Repetition in plants and hardscape Using the same plant repeatedly in a landscape is simple repetition. A grass garden is a good example of subtle plant repetition. Gradation can be achieved with a gradual change in height or size (e.g., using small grasses in front, backed by medium grasses, and then large grasses). A more obvious gradation is plants that transition from fine to coarse texture, or from light green to dark green. Material can be used repeatedly throughout the yard for unity, but interest can be created by slightly varying the size, texture, or color of hardscape material. Repetition and pattern can be made most obvious in the hardscape because duplication is easiest with built materials that are manufactured to exact dimensions.
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