It was observed that the output of both the groups increased steadily

It was observed that the output of both the groups

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It was observed that the output of both the groups increased steadily. • Conclusion : There is no relationship between lighting and productivity. Not the improved working conditions but the informal social relation developed among the group members was the reason for increased productivity. Relay assembly test room experiments: A group of six girls was formed. They were placed in a separate test room. An observer supervised the girls. The girls were told to work in a normal way and allowed to comment freely about changes in the working conditions. The changes were made with durations ranging from 4 to 12 weeks. Group bonus incentive scheme was the first change made. The productivity increased to some extent. The change in the duration of rests was the second change. Earlier the rest period in the morning as well as in the evening was 5 minutes each. It was increased to 10 minutes each. The productivity increased. Free snacks and coffee/soup were provided in the rest time. (The third change) The productivity increased. • Free snacks and coffee/soup were withdrawn but the number of rest periods were increased to four each with 5 minutes duration.( The fourth change) • The productivity decreased slightly. Not because of above change of snacks/coffee but because of frequent rest intervals. The girls complained that frequent rest intervals affect smooth flow of work. 43 Chapter 2 - History of Management
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• So, the number of rest intervals was reduced to two of 10 minutes duration each, and coffee/soup was provided in the morning and snacks in the evening. Productivity increased by 30%. • At this stage, the researcher decided to withdraw all the benefits and facilities. (The fifth change) Interestingly, productivity increased further . • As and when the change was introduced, it was found that the absenteeism decreased, morale increased, and less supervision was needed. Since the girls were allowed to work freely , they developed a sense of responsibility and self discipline. A close and friendly relationship prevailed between the supervisor and the group girls. These five changes were introduced over a period of two years. But the method of payment was not changed. Morale and productivity was maintained even though the changes in working conditions were withdrawn. • Conclusion : Productivity increases because of socio economic factors such as feeling of being important, recognition, attention, complete communication, participation, small size of informal and cohesive work group and no-directive supervision. Mass Interviewing Program: The interview program was conducted to determine attitudes of employees towards: • Company • Supervision Insurance plans Promotion and wages Nearly 20000 employees including supervisors were interviewed, many of them twice. Initially the interviews were structured, only direct questions being asked by the researchers. So, they were not able to find the grass root of the problem.
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