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Brønsted–lowry acids and bases an acid is a proton

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Unformatted text preview: Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases An acid is a proton donor A base is a proton acceptor acid base H 2 O H 3 O HBr Br + + NH 3 H 2 O + NH 4 + OH acid base Note that water can act as an acid or a base 8 acid base H 2 O H 3 O HBr Br + + The remaining species after the proton has been donated is the conjugate base . conjugate acid conjugate base Every acid–base reaction involving proton transfer has two conjugate acid–base pairs. H Br Br + + O H H O H H H The resulting species after the proton has been accepted is the conjugate acid . Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases Lewis Acids and Bases A Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor . (think empty orbital) (think filled orbital) A Lewis base is an electron pair donor . 9 Lewis Acids and Bases + O H H H O H H H Lewis acid Lewis base Adduct Electron deficient Electron rich New covalent bond Lewis Acids and Bases B F F F CH 3 CH 2 O CH 2 CH 3 + B F F F O CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 Lewis acid Lewis base Adduct Electron deficient Electron rich New covalent bond Lewis acids don ` t have to donate a proton, as long as they can accept a share in an electron pair. High energy HOMO Low energy LUMO What is the hybridization of the boron in BF 3 ? A: sp B: sp 2 C: sp 3 D: sp 4 E: sp 5 10 Acids and Bases Brønsted: H A + B A- + HB (proton donation) molecule pK a HCl -7.0 HF 3.2 Acetic acid 4.76 H 2 O 15.7 HC ≡ CH 25 NH 3 35 CH 4 60 Measure of acidity...
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Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases An acid is a proton donor...

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