Moving camera (“The Girl and Her Trust”) b. Camera placement c. Lighting (atmosphere, time of day, mood) d. Acting (difference between screen and film) e. Other techniques “Broken Blossoms” (1919) Iris Shot Early Features/ Star System I. Rise of the Independents II. Film d’Art a. “Queen Elizabeth” (1912) i. Sandra Bernhardt ii. Imported to U.S by Adolph Zukor (nick. operator) III. Italian Super-Spectacles a. “Cabira” (1914) i. Dir. Giovanni Pastrone ii. Huge Budgets IV. Impact of Imported Features a. Feature = 40+ mins V. Independent Actors b. Carl Leammle (founder of Universal Pictures) c. Audience Favorites d. Florence Lorence e. Mary Pickford Use of the Star System 1. Strategy to attract large audiences 2. Pre-selling movies with star personas 3. Differentiation of products with stars 4. Stabilization of production around stars Rise of Features I. Early American Features II. Traffic in Souls (1913) i. Prostitution III. Griffith leaves Biograph a. Wanted to make more than just “one-reelers” b. “Judith of Bethulia” (1914) i. four-reeler IV. “The Cheat” a. Dir. Cecil B. DeMille
The Birth of a Nation (1915) 1. Production 2. Aesthetic Value/Importance 3. Social Importance (Based on Thomas Dixon’s “The Clansman”) Mutual vs. Ohio o “movies are a business, pure and simple” o the capacity for evil o Ohio wins – movies not protected by first amendment Intolerance (1916) o 4 stories intermingled The Studio System I. Factory Model of Production II. Thomas H. Ince a. Inceville – studio b. Central Producer System c. Continuity strips – SAW (shoot as written) III. Mode of Production a. Labor force b. Means of production c. Financing Battle for the Theaters 1. Adolph Zukor a. Famous Players + Paramount 2. Block Booking 3. First National 4. Vertical Integration a. Production b. Distribution c. Exhibition Hollywood Scandals I. The Scandals a. “Fatty” Arbuckle scandal i. woman dies at house party ii. Arbuckle charged with manslaughter, put on trial b. William Desmond Taylor, i. Successful director found dead in his home ii. Several affairs (Mary Miles Minter) c. Wallace Reid i. Drug overdose death II. Results of the Scandals III. Formation of the MPPDA (Motion Picture Prodocers and Distributors of America) a. AKA The Hayes Office b. Will H. Hays IV. MPPDA Objectives V. MPPDA Accomplishments
a. Central Casting VI. Control of Content a. Studio Relations Dept. (Col. Jason Joy) b. The “Dont’s and Be Carefuls” Films in the 1920s I. Silent Comedy a. Charlie Chaplin i. Keystone ($150/week) ii. Essanay ($1250 + $10,000 bonus) iii. Mutual (1915) iv. First National v. United Artists (f. 1919) b. Buster Keaton i. 12 feature films from 1923-1929 Radio Boom - Th 1920s in context o economics KDKA, Pittsburgh (1921) Harold Arlin The Boom (1920-1923) A. Broadcasters B. Manufacturing C. Programming Types of Programs Music (71.5%) Vaughn DeLeath Vincent Lopez Drama (.1%) Other Entertainment (6.8%) Information (11.5%) Other Paying for Radio A) How to Pay?
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