Oldest possible amh cranial fragments recovered from

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vegetation and for animals and hominins to live. Oldest possible AMH, cranial  fragments recovered from a spring, 250,000 bp, a good candidate for early AMH.  Little bit of a brow ridge, forehead receding, yet face quite flat, small nasal 
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aperature, square eye sockets very typical modern human characteristics.  Definitely Homo sapiens but maybe not sapiens sapiens. Really good candidate  for AMH Omo Kibish, Ethiopia: Omo river that flows into lake Turkana. 2 crania, 4  mandibles, 195,000 bp (well dated), cranial capacity of >1400 cc, clearly AMH’s, large mastoid process, not much of a brow ridge, modern human prominent chin,  rounded cranial vault  Herto Bouri, Middle Awash in Ethiopia: 3 crania – one rather complete, 1450 cc  and 160,000 bp. Bit of a brow ridge but forehead more vertical, small nasal  aperature, flat face, square eye sockets. Gave it subspecies name as Homo sapiens idaltu- not very doable with only skeleton to determine its subspecies Jebel Irhoud, Morocco: 2 crania and a mandible, Neandertal like with very  notable brow ridge but still AMH features with large mastoid process, square eye  orbit, flat face, cranial capacity of 1450 cc, 190-160,000 ya Klasies River Mouth, South Africa: number of cave sites with remains of 10  individuals, full modern, 120,000 ya. Associated with evidence of symbolic  behavior, red ochre (100,000 ya) used for painting, shell beads with obvious made holes to be used. Little evidence that other hominins practiced symbolic behavior,  it does not have any practical purpose Modern Language Origins Points to Africa being main homeland for AMH, trace back language, the longer a  language exists, the more phonemes. Counting phoneme gives idea of how old it is and  how long language has been around. Tracing this shows pattern emerging from South  Africa, 141 phonemes here, Khoisan languages are oldest living languages. As it moves  out of Africa to Europe, fewer phonemes, English has 44 phonemes. From Europe to  Asia even less. Down to South America with Pirah has 11 phonemes.  Phoneme: basic unit of language, individual sounds which are combined to form  meaningful units (words). Higher phoneme diversity is related to age of a language AMH Genetic Origins Looking at human genome to track back in time, looks at groups of alleles- haplotypes,  passed on as a package. Root haplotypes and haplogroups (larger groups). Accumulate 
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  • Spring '12
  • Sandgathe
  • AMH, brow ridge

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