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plans to meet each goal. Using the information retrieved from step three, the next step of the planning process, goal and plan selection, is designed for the manager to decide on the goal and plan that is the most suitable and practical for the organization. Step five of the planning processinvolves putting the plans from step four into action to achieve the organization’s goals. Implementing these plans properly is a critical element in achieving the desired goals. Bateman & Snell (2009) state, “even the best plans are useless if they are not implemented properly.” Once the plans are implemented, the sixth and final step of the planning process is to monitor and control. Monitoring and control is a continuous process with the purpose of evaluating the plan to determine if it was successful. In addition, the manager must monitor and control the performance of the employees to ensure that their work is in line with the plans and goals set by this planning process. The six steps in the basic planning process should be used at every level ofmanagement throughout any given organization. Although these steps are used by all managers,
Management Planning 4the level of detail and the range of the planning will vary at the different levels of the organization.The three levels of planning in an organization are: strategic (top-level), tactical (middle-level), and operational (frontline). Strategic planning is made by the senior members of an organization about the long-term strategies to achieve strategic organizational goals. Bateman & Snell (2009) define strategic goals as, “major targets or end results that relate to the long-term survival, value, and growth of the organization.” The target of these goals is to increase both efficiency and effectiveness of the organization. After the broad long-term plans are set by the top-level management, the plans are then passed down into the hands of the tactical and operational levels for a more detailed evaluation. The tactical level of planning converts the goalsand plans from top level management into specific areas of the organization. At this level of organizational planning managers “focus on the major actions a unit must take to fulfill its part of the strategic plan” (Bateman & Snell, 2009). Once the plans and goals reach the operational level of planning, frontline managers focus on the regular tasks that support the goals. These tasks include gathering or ensuring proper financial and human resources as well as outlining therisk assessment and mitigation strategies associated with the plan. Impacts on PlanningAlthough planning is not intended to be a random response to an incident, part of the planning process involves adapting and overcoming to any issues that may arise in an organization. When an incident occurs in an organization, it is the responsibility of management to take corrective action on the issue. Issues that may arise that affect an organization are: legal issues, ethical issues, and corporate social responsibilities.