IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

Lithium ion battery 70 mw 17 mwh lead acid battery 35

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Lithium Ion Battery ~70 MW ~17 MWh Lead Acid Battery ~35 MW ~70 MWh Nickel Cadmium Battery 27 MW 6,75 MWh Flywheels <25 MW <0,4 MWh Redox Flow Battery <3 MW <12 MWh
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47 Figure 3-5 shows the locations of NaS batteries installed in the TEPCO service area; the average capacity per location is about 2 MW. The majority of batteries are installed in large factories (64 %), but there are some in large commercial buildings (19 %) as well as in water supply/sewerage systems and schools/ research institutes (12 % together). 3.1.3 EES installed capacity worldwide Figure 3-6 shows the installed capacity of EES systems used in electricity grids. Pumped hydro storage (PHS) power plants, with over 127 GW, represent 99 %, and this is about 3 % of global generation capacity. The second- largest EES in installed capacity is CAES, but there are only two systems in operation. The third most widely-used EES is the NaS battery. As of the end of September 2010, NaS systems were installed and operational in 223 locations in, for example, Japan, Germany, France, USA and UAE (total: 316 MW). However, a large quantity of other EES is expected to be installed given the emerging market needs for different applications, as shown in the next section. 3.2 New trends in applications Five new trends in EES applications are described: renewable energy, smart grids, smart microgrids, smart houses and electric vehicles. Current use cases of these applications include experimental equipment and plans. 3.2.1 Renewable energy generation In order to solve global environmental problems, renewable energies such as solar and wind will be widely used. This means that the future energy supply will be influenced by fluctuating renewable energy sources – electricity production will follow weather conditions and the surplus and deficit in energy need to be balanced. One of the main functions of energy storage, to match the supply and demand of energy (called time shifting), is essential for large and small-scale applications. In the following, we show two cases classified by their size: kWh class and MWh class. The third class, the GWh class, will be covered in section 4.2.2. Besides time shifting with energy storage, there are also other ways of matching supply and demand. With a reinforced power grid, regional overproduction can be compensated for by energy transmission to temporarily less productive areas. The amount of energy storage can also be reduced by overinstallation of renewable energy generators. With this approach even weakly producing periods are adequate for the load expected. A further option is so-called demand-side management (described under Smart Grid in section 3.2.2), where users are encouraged to shift their consumption of electricity towards periods when surplus energy from renewables is available.
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