The crop lien system was the use of crop as collateral for loans from merchants

The crop lien system was the use of crop as

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The crop-lien system was the use of crop as collateral for loans from merchants for supplies.White farmers increased cotton cultivation, cotton prices plummeted, and they found themselves unable to pay back loans.Both black and white farmers found themselves caught in the sharecropping and crop-lien systems.Southern cities experienced remarkable growth after the Civil War.There was a rise of a new middle class.Aftermaths of SlaveryThe Reconstruction-era debates over transitioning from slavery to freedom had parallels in otherWestern Hemisphere countries where emancipation occurred in the nineteenth century.Only in the United States did former slaves gain political rights quickly.The Making of Radical ReconstructionAndrew JohnsonJohnson identified himself as the champion of the "honest yeomen" and a foe of large planters.Johnson lacked Lincoln's political skills and keen sense of public opinion.Johnson believed that African-Americans had no role to play in Reconstruction.The Failure of Presidential ReconstructionJohnson's plan for Reconstruction offered pardons to the white southern elite.Johnson's plan allowed the new state governments a free hand in managing local affairs.The Black CodesSouthern governments began passing new laws that restricted the freedom of blacks.These new laws violated free labor principles and called forth a vigorous response from the Republican North.The Radical RepublicansRadical Republicans called for the dissolution of Johnson's state governments, the establishment of new governments that did not have "rebels" in power, and the guarantee of the right to vote forblack men.The Radicals fully embraced the expanded powers of the federal government born of the Civil War.Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens.Thaddeus Stevens's most cherished aim was to confiscate the land of disloyal planters and divideit among former slaves and northern migrants to the South.Stevens's plan was too radical for most others in Congress.The Origins of Civil RightsMost Republicans were moderates, not radicals.Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois proposed two bills to modify Johnson's policy:oExtend the life of the Freedmen's Bureau.oThe Civil Rights Bill, in which equality before the law was central; it sought to overturn the Black Codes.Johnson vetoed both bills.Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill over his veto and later extended the life of the Freedmen's Bureau.The Fourteenth Amendment
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The Fourteenth Amendment placed in the Constitution the principle of citizenship for all personsborn in the United States and empowered the federal government to protect the rights of all Americans.
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  • Spring '08
  • SARABOSTELMANN
  • US History, Reconstruction, Southern United States, Ulysses S. Grant, Reconstruction era of the United States, free labor, reconstruction act

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