CRC cardsWith the CRC technique (CRC stands for Class Responsibility Collabo-ration), context aspects and their respective attributes and propertiesare denoted on index cards. Requirements are then formulated usingthese cards.Audio and video recordingsAudio and video recordingsare very well suited to elicit requirementswhen stakeholders are not always available, when budget is tight, orwhen the system is highly critical. Especially during field observations,audio and video recordings can help capture fast-paced processes. Thedisadvantage of this technique is that stakeholders often feel supervisedwhen they are being recorded and as a result might deliver biased state-ments or, in extreme cases, might even refuse to cooperate.Modeling action sequencesUse case modeling: Use cases document the external view of the systemto be developed. A use case has a trigger event, which triggers the usecase and an expected result, or outcome of the use case. Every use caseis a functionality that must be supported by the system to be developed(see section 6.3).Prototypes for illustrationPrototypes are well suited to question established requirements and toelicit requirements in situations where stakeholders have only a vague
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3.4Summary31understanding of what is to be developed. Potential consequences ofnew or changed requirements can be identified easier. For example,user interface prototypes are frequently used in practice to find addi-tional functional requirements. 3.4SummaryRequirements elicitation is a core activity in requirements engineering.Aside from documents and legacy systems, stakeholders are the mainsources for requirements. It is important to initially agree upon mutualrights and responsibilities of the stakeholders and the requirements engi-neer in order to facilitate communication and cooperation and to success-fully integrate the stakeholders into the elicitation process. The choice ofthe right elicitation technique for the respective project is made by therequirements engineer based on the given cultural, organizational, anddomain-specific constraints.
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334Documenting RequirementsIn requirements engineering, information that has been established orworked out during different activities must be documented. Among thisinformation are, for example, protocols of interviews and reports of vali-dation or agreement activities, but also change requests. The main andmost important documentation task in requirements engineering, though,is to document the requirements for the system in a suitable manner.4.1Document DesignA documentation technique is any kind of more or less formal depictionthat eases communication between stakeholders and increases the qualityof the documented requirements. In principle, any kind of documentationtechnique can be used to document the requirements, let it be natural lan-guage-based documentation by means of prose, more structured naturallanguage-based text, or more formal techniques such as state diagrams.
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