Research o sexology research kinsey masters and

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Research: o Sexology research (Kinsey, Masters and Johnson) showed that physiologically, both sexes experience similar sexual arousal and physiological responses o Masters and Johnson “four stages of the sexual response cycle” include: Desire Arousal (excitement) Orgasm Resolution o Be aware of the apparent simplicity of stage theories o Unfortunately, there has been an impulse to treat these four stages as if they were like the cycles of a washing machine o This has led to a mistaken inference of universality
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o Individuals vary enormously in sexual excitement, response, and inhibition o Kinsey Kinsey Institute that studies human sexual behaviour Kinsey Scale 0 being exclusively heterosexual 3 being equally hetero and homo 6 being exclusively homosexual o Biology and Sexual Orientation: Traditional psychological explanations for homosexuality and NOT been supported These have included: Parenting (smothering mother, absent mother) Emotional Problems Same-sex play during development Childhood seduction Homosexual role models or encouragement to be gay Evidence for Biological Basis: Same-sex activity in hundreds of other species Early and strong feeling of being gay and/or identifying with the opposite gender Twin Studies (moderate heritability: 0.3 – 0.6) “Brother” Effect – prenatal hormonal events – aka “fraternal birth order effect” o More biologically brothers in the household you will be more gay Culture, Gender, and Sexual Orientation BUT biological factors do not account 100% for sexual orientation, nor for diversity in the expression of homosexuality across cultures AND it may be different for males and females Men and women are equally like to feel love and need attachment But they differ, on average, in: o How they express feeling of love and how they define intimacy These gender differences reflect gender roles Gender roles are in turn shaped by social, economic, and cultural forces (which change over time) Meta-analysis on changes in sexual behaviour and attitudes: Study Wells and Tweng: o Examined 530 studies (total N of 269,469) conducted between 1943 and 1999, addressing changes over time in young peoples: Sexual activity
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Results: o Females average increased o Males stayed the same Average age at first intercourse Results o increased Number of sexual partners Guilt about sex Attitudes toward premarital sex Increased over time o Greater percentage of young people engaging in oral sex: Pre-1970 about 45-50% (higher for males) Post 1990 about 70% o Average number of partners: No significant change over the years o Learning What’s Attractive: People party learn from their culture: What is “supposed” to be attractive Which part of the body and what activities are erotic/repulsive Whether or not certain romantic/sexual behaviours are appealing Achievement Motivation: o This section: Describes features of successful goal setting
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