Came up with a plan to get the nazis on their side by

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came up with a plan to get the Nazis on their side by offering to make Hitler vicechancellor. He refused and demanded to be made chancellor. They agreed, thinking theycould control him. Hitler used Article 48 to pass the Enabling Act, which allowed Hitlerto become the sole dictator of Germany. Article 48 had been used repeatedly since thecreation of the Weimar Constitution. The overuse of Article 48 weakened the governmentand caused the German people to turn against the idea of a democratic government.While using Article 48, Hitler passed the Enabling Act, which made all political partiesnot related to the Nazi party illegal. Hitler was able to turn away from the WeimarConstitution with its hopes of a democratic government in Germany and establish a Nazigovernment with Hitler as the supreme dictator in 1933.Walther RathenauWho: Walther RathenauWhat: German Foreign MinisterWhen: 1867-1922Where: Berlin, GermanyWhy: Rathenau initiated the Treaty of Rapallo, which removed major obstacles to tradingwith Soviet Russia. Although Russia was already aiding Germany’s secret rearmamentprogramme, right-wing nationalist groups branded Rathenau a revolutionary, when hewas in fact a moderate liberal who openly condemned Soviet methods. They alsoresented his background as a successful Jewish businessman.Organized Germany’seconomy on a war footing during World War I and, after the war, as minister ofreconstruction and foreign minister, was instrumental in beginning reparations paymentsunder the Treaty of Versailles obligations and in breaking Germany’s diplomatic isolationHighest position held by JewHated by radical right as a JewHated as a democratPolitical beneficiary of revolution of 1918Immensely wealthy capitalScientific racismWho: Robert Knox (1962) , Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840), Carl GustavCarus (1789-1869), Cort Arthur de Gobineau (1816-1882), etc.What: A way for secularizing scientists and individuals to try and explain the universefrom the perspective of human understanding. Scientists in Europe were wondering whythey were so much more advanced than other civilizations and why there was a difference
When: Emerges about the 18th century (Enlightenment)Where: EuropeWhy: Gives Nazism its defining stamp, basically studying who is man and where did mancome from? Why are groupings the way that they are? So what does this have do with theJews? For now, nothing. The darker civilizations were the ones that were feared,however, new people bring in new things. Jews were in white category for everybody.Eventually the “culture destroyers” become the JewsEnlightenment-inspired sciences:Phrenology and physiognomy (measuring human skulls/faces and the shapes inorder to observe different characteristics of different races)The “facial angle”. From Robert Knox,The Races of Men(1862) (shouldbe a 90 degree angle and perfect symmetry)The greek ideal as aesthetic normBias scientists trying to convince everybody that the white man is themost superior

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Term
Spring
Professor
Gillerman
Tags
Adolf Hitler, Nazism, Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg

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