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Linked to politics—governments pursue free tradeNot all countries became very open, but understood that trade/cooperation to b successful 5. Norms: Both politics and economics contributed to international norms of openness
EffectsofGlobalizationSociologists are very interested in globalization because it has great implications on social relationsMarkets: We’re able to buy goods from anywhere; we’re employed by foreign companiesMore stability/ predictable world.Not everywhere- Still regional conflicts Politics: Governments around the world are constrained by international agreementsCulture: Transformation and hybridizationTopic of Gosh’s articleReading week 3 Ghosh: Culture and GlobalizationRQ: How global affects cultural trend in that country Multiple Effects: Finds that globalization is shaping Indian culture in a great variety of ways-Finds technological changeCreates a different experience when relating to other people. Observations:oMore emphasis on media/virtual relationshipsoPeople have more personal autonomy oEffect on the Indian society as whole. Technology:TVs, cellphones, and computers available and affordable because of global marketsPractices:People spending time watching TV, on internet, on phoneinstead of other activitiesSuch practices also allow for additional cultural changesoCell phone and internet allow for increasing personal autonomyfrom familyAllows people to meet others on-line, contributes to growth in love marriages and elopingTechnology, Norms, andValuesTechnology is also affecting norms and values1. Love Marriages:Weakening norm of arranged marriages-Media romanticizing love marriages2. Beauty:beauty standards changing! Growing embrace of Western clothing styles, cosmetics, thinness (and anorexia)Men: Muscular masculinityWhat is ugly, acceptable, pretty – all changing bcz of globalization (TV, interacting on the internet) 3. School Subjects:Valuation of English, computer science4. Food:Non-Indian foods like pasta, pizza, burgers-More restaurants-Weakens norm of eating with familyEg. Global chains like McDonaldsGlobalizationandConsumerismWhen people use these tech – more likely to adopt new norms and values He also says – clear relationship b/w tech and consumerism -Ghosh notes globalization is linked to growing consumerism
Access: Opening of markets facilitated access to productsMore and cheaperNew technologies that replace other ones – iphone x – better than old models But in 2022- x will be absolute Once we get some new gadgets – in 1 year – we need to get a replacement. Norms and Values: Influence of media placed greater value on material productsBombarded by commercialsSelf-Reinforcing: Technological expansion promotes consumerism, consumerism promotes buying more and more new technological gadgetsWhose Culture?