To put in place machineries for effective management

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to put in place machineries for effective management of conflicts naturally resulting from their common and opposing interests. 2.2 TYPES OF CONFLICTS IN ORGANIZATIONS Doyles (2000:32) distinguishes between two types of conflict in organizations. These are individual conflicts (which can arise as a result of one employee feeling aggrieved) and collective conflict (which may originate from an individual employee or many result from a disagreement between the union and management). Accordingly, individual conflict arises when an employee considers that he has been maltreated or deprived something that he is legitimately entitled to or that some right of his has been breached. This 27
may arise from unfair disciplinary measure taken against the individual, lack of promotion opportunities for him, deprival of annual increment, among others. This conflict, unless properly investigated can have adverse effects on the employee concerned. On the other hand, collective conflict arises either from misinterpretation of collective agreement or non- implementation of the whole or parts of the agreement. It may also result from break down of collective bargaining. Doyles (2000:33) expresses that in some cases, a conflict that begins as an individual conflict can develop into a collective conflict. Generally, conflicts involving an individual are ever having his rights i.e. what he thinks he is entitled to as a workman in his workplace. Collective conflicts are concerned mainly with economic matters except in cases where individual conflicts. The conflict may arise either because of a break down in collective agreement on misinterpretation of collective agreement on, in yet other cases, the non-implementation of the whole or parts of the agreement. 28
While agreeing with this expression, Dunlop (2002:315) remarks that organizational conflicts that arise from collective grievances may also be the result of non- observance of conditions of an individual or disciplinary measures. A large number of conflicts that occur in organizations may be those concerning situations not governed by rules. Such conflicts emanate essentially from individual workers and may be because of an alleged ill- treatment of the workers by his boss or the result of some claimed right. Chandan (2005:115) distinguishes between five types of conflicts which occur within an organization. These include the following; i. Intra-personal conflict ii. Inter-personal conflict iii. Personal-group conflict iv. Inter-group conflict v. Inter-organizational conflict 29
Accordingly, intra-personal conflict occurs within an individual which results from conflict between an individual’s goals and the values expected of him. The circumstance creates a tension in the individual as he tries to satisfy both his personal interest and what people expects from him.

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