conquest and disease. Disease Spanish explorers also carried dangerous diseases with them to the New World. In 1519, Hernán Cortés and his army infamously carried smallpox to Mexico. Future explorers brought diseases such as cholera, measles, typhus, and tuberculosis to the Americas. The native populations had no immunity to these diseases, which spread like wildfire among them and killed many. Interaction between the Old and New Worlds brought positive as well as negative effects. Natives Tribes of North America Before Europeans began to settle the North American continent, the various American Indian tribes settled across the land. The tribes spoke several different languages, as shown by the colors on the map, but those whose languages were related usually managed to understand each other. Some tribes were agricultural while others were hunters and gatherers, depending partly on where they lived and what was possible on the land where they were located. Some tribes formed friendly alliances and traded with each other; the Iroquois Confederacy in the Northeast was one example of this. Other tribes developed historical rivalries, such as the
Comanche and Apache. In any case, the arrival of European settlers permanently changed the way of life for all tribes. Northeast Northeastern tribes such as the Iroquois Confederation lived in forests and cut down trees to build lodgings and plant crops. Southeast Many Southeastern tribes, including the Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian, were mound builders. Great Basin and Northwest The tribes of the Great Basin and Northwest included nomadic hunters (Shoshones) and those who combined farming and hunting (Nez Perce). Great Plains Most Plains tribes were hunters and gatherers. Bison herds were important for their survival. They included the Sioux, Comanche, and Blackfoot. Southwest The Mogollon, Hohokam, and Anasazi were Southwestern tribes. Typically these tribes lived in small farming communities.
Lesson 2 A New World The Spanish importation of goods from the Americas to Europe led other nations to consider exploration of the newly discovered continent. While early English settlements failed to take root at the beginning, they eventually thrived and became important economic resources for Great Britain. Over time, the various colonies that were formed took on characteristics unique to each region. This lesson uncovers how the early cultural developments of the colonies would have a resounding impact on the development of American culture. Learning Objectives What are learning objectives? They are the skills, knowledge, and attitudes you will gain from your schoolwork. Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to •Compare and contrast the influences that shaped the New England, middle, and southern colonies by analyzing geography, economic systems, and social structure.