waluk youssef, dowling the relationship between gambling and adhd 2015.pdf

Ever significantly moderated the relationship between

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ever, significantly moderated the relationship between probable ADHD and problem gambling severity. These findings, which may be a result of the use of non-standardised single items that subjectively evaluated alcohol and substance use, require replication in future research using standardized measures of alcohol and substance use. The relationships between probable ADHD and the demographic characteristics of gender and age were also not statistically significant. This is not only inconsistent with previous research findings that the subtypes that most closely resemble the antisocial impulsivist pathway are most likely to be comprised of young, male problem gamblers (Blaszczynski and Nower 2002 ; Milosevic and Ledgerwood 2010 ; Suomi et al. 2014 ), but also with evidence that ADHD is a childhood development disorder that most commonly occurs in boys (Polanczyk et al. 2007 ; Spencer et al. 2007 ; Willcutt 2012 ). Moreover, gender and age did not significantly moderate the relationship between probable ADHD and problem gambling severity in the sample of treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Future research in community samples is required to explore the demographic character- istics of problem gamblers with comorbid ADHD and the role these factors play in the relationship between ADHD and problem gambling. Although there are some issues around the precision of the findings of this and previous studies, it is clear that treatment-seeking problem gamblers generally report high rates of ADHD and that problem gamblers with comorbid ADHD present with more complicated clinical profiles than their non-ADHD counterparts. These findings highlight the need to undertake routine screening of co-occurring ADHD in individuals seeking treatment for gambling problems. Clients who screen positively for ADHD will require more extensive diagnostic assessments and identification of their therapeutic needs. They may also require individually tailored case formations, treatment plans, treatment objectives, and J Gambl Stud 123
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individualized intervention approaches, which in turn could serve to maximize treatment response, enhance client satisfaction, reduce attrition, and lower treatment costs (Ladou- ceur et al. 2006 ). There is also a need for an appropriate clinical response by specialist gambling agencies, such as appropriate referral pathways or a workforce with adequate skills to competently manage comorbid ADHD (Westphal and Johnson 2007 ). Research has yet to identify the most appropriate interventions for subgroups of dis- ordered gamblers with co-occurring ADHD. Psychostimulants or dopaminergic medica- tions, such as dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate, or bupropion are recommended when there is comorbid ADHD (Dell’Osso et al. 2005 ; Grall-Bronnec et al. 2011 ). It has also been suggested that intensive and prolonged cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) may be required for this group of problem gamblers to control impulsivity and reduce urgency to regulate intense emotional states by gambling (Grall-Bronnec et al. 2011 ). There are also
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