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9They studied irrigation techniques, constructing reservoirs and irrigation facilities throughout the kingdom. The Inca empire, on the other hand, was vast, and had many different environments to grow crops in, but their specialty was farming in the mountainous regions of the Andes.Even in the harshest areas of the Andes, the Incas flourished with their advanced agricultural techniques such as cisterns, irrigation canals, and terraces which were cut into the sides of mountains and hills. Cynthia Graber states, “At the Incan civilization’s height in the 8New World Encyclopedia contributors, “Zhou Dynasty,” New World Encyclopedia,last modified Jul 3, 2013, accessed Oct 8, 2017, .9 Soon-Hyuk Lee, Ph.D., Yong-Jig Lee, M.Sc., Jong-Hwa Park, Ph.D., Soon-Kuk Kwun, Ph.D., Keun-Hoo Lee, Ph.D., Ju-Chang Kim, M.Sc., History of Irrigation in Korea,2001, accessed Oct 5, 2017, Korean National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (KCID) Ansan, Korea, 22,
1400s, the system of terraces covered about a million hectares throughout Peru and fed the vast empire.”10The agricultural systems put into place by each of these civilizations easily demonstrates how complex societies were capable of sustaining large populations with simple agricultural techniques such as irrigation structures like reservoirs, as well as the storing of surplus food to supply people during times of famine, drought, or during long journeys. These technological structures gave societies the opportunity to grow in population, and provided a means of creating specific occupations for members of the community, thereby establishing a class system.Class and gender structures were very similar for many ancient societies. The ruling class mainly consisted of those individuals who owned land, providing wealth through agriculture, and typically held important roles in government. The middle and lower classes made up the majority of the population, generally made up of what is considered the working class of today’s world – craftsmen, merchants and artisans comprised the middle class, while farmers, soldiers, and laborers made up the lower class. Enemies captured during battle usually became slaves. Women were typically classified as care givers – responsible for the care of the home, their children, husbands, and extended families, but at times were also artisans, creating clothing, baskets, and pottery. While women were not usually allowed to hold important roles in the government, they were, for the most part, still considered a valuable asset in the ruling class, if for no other reason than their ability to provide heirs.During the Zhou Dynasty, the ruling class consisted of noble families and military leaderswith hereditary connections to the royal family. The elites of Zhou society were easily identified by the number of cast-bronze items in their households, such as the serving bowl shown in fig. 1.