responsible for their other name, white muscles) – for rapid, intense actions but
the muscle fatigues quickly.
Only sustained for a short time
White muscles are in turkeys
This is why they are only capable of short flights.
They are immature muscle cells or fibers.
Rich medium = happy mitosis, beta actin is produced
Has a single nucleus
If given a poor medium it indicates to the cells that they should stop dividing, then
there will be fibers that have fused together and become multinuclear. Alpha actin
We may be able to grow meat using myoblasts through invitro
Sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, mitochondria, nuclei …
Sarcoplasm is the equivalent to cytoplasm.
Sarcolemma is the equivalent to the cell membrane.
The reason there is more than one nucleus is that there is repetitive nuclear
divisions but no cytokinesis or cell fusion.
Consists of the brain, spinal cord, sense organs, and nerves.
Neurons are cells in the nervous system that send and receive electrical and chemical
signals to and from other neuron throughout the body.
All animals expect sponges have neurons, with the number varying as a function
of size and behavioural complexity.
Some neurons are covered in a thick layer of connective tissue (myelin
sheath) formed by non-neuronal cells (glial cells- named either Schwann
cells or oligodendrocytes).
A nerve has hundreds of neurons, with associated glial cells
Glial are cells that produce the connective tissue and organize the zones around the
neurons, producing myelin for certain nerves.
nerve tract is a bundle of axons.
ganglion is a collection of neuron cell bodies.
myelin sheath is formed by glial cells and acts as an “insulating material”.
Vertebrates and simpler chordates have a CNS (central nervous system with a brain and
spinal cord) and a PNS (peripheral nervous system). You can see the similarity to the
segmentation of invertebrates.
Specialization of function
Afferent neurons carry signals toward the brain
Efferent neurons away from the brain