Native Americans Prelude to Massacre at Wounded Knee Military decided to arrest some of the chiefs to make them stop the Ghost Dance Sitting Bull killed the officer trying to arrest him and a fight ensued Sitting Bull, 8 of his supporters, and 6 policemen were killed 15 December 1890
Native Americans Wounded Knee 29 December 1890 At Pine Ridge Reservation the army demanded Sioux relinquish all weapons Big Foot and his followers camped on the banks of Wounded Knee Creek A shot rang out (possibly by a deaf Indian who did not understand the instructions) and massacre began 200ish Native Americans + 25 Soldiers Nearly half of Natives killed were women and children Current day monument of Wounded Knee
Massacre at Wounded Knee
Mining Mexicans discovered it first in 1830s James Marshall discovered a gold nugget in the American River – Jan 1848 Peaked in 1852 Few little guys made $ Population of non- natives grew to 100,000 California Gold Rush 1849
Mining Ethan Allen and Hosea Ballou Grosh discovered huge ore deposit in 1857 Both died tragically – pick ax through foot & exposure Henry Comstock (“Old Pancake)befriended the brothers and took over their cabin cabin silver ore deposit Named after him, but he died penniless from self-inflicted gunshot wound $300 million in Nevada 1873 - “Big Bonanza” – gold and silver Who are the others involved in this vein? Probable picture Of Henry Comstock Comstock Lode 1859
Mining – Pocket Map of Comstock Lode
Mining 30% of population from outside the US Irish – largest % 90% Male Irish women – servants, boardinghouse owners, and washerwomen Chinese – mostly male Cosmopolitan Virginia City
Mining Laboratory for Mining Corporate oligopoly Control by small # of firms 1,200 stamping mills- 1 ton of ore per day 400 men in milling/300 in manufacturing 3,000 worked in the mines Virginia City = 25,000 population Virginia City present day
Women in Mining Towns Polly Bemis Aka Lalu Nathoy
Polly Bemis Sold to bandits by her parents for 2 bags of seeds during a drought in Northern China Auctioned as a slave in San Francisco 1872 Charlie Beemis helped her gain freedom & they married 1894 Loved by everyone A Thousand Pieces of Gold
Women in Mining Towns Calamity Jane –
Calamity Jane Martha Cannary, Princeton, Missouri – 1852. Exaggerator & Alcoholic She grew up to act like a man, shoot like a cowboy and drink like a fish. Worked as a nurse, dance hall girl, dishwasher, and maybe even a prostitute. 1870 - joined Custer as a scoutw 1876 - worked as a Pony Express rider and met Wild Bill Hickok Married and had a child -her drinking took her on the prowl and she finally died of alcoholism in Deadwood in 1903 – requesting to be buried next to Wild Bill.
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- Fall '15
- Manifest Destiny, Native Americans in the United States, Cheyenne, Sitting Bull