Still the five tribal governments survive for a while

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Still, the Five Tribal governments survive – for a while.
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Change in Citizenship ! High Plains Indian Wars created crisis for Native Americans, including the Five Tribes ! U.S. Congress passes the Dawes Act of 1887. ! Disbands most Indian tribal governments. ! Forces most Indians to become American Citizens. ! Indians fight the law through petitions and in courts. ! The Five Tribes were excluded from these provisions ! U.S. Congress passes the Curtis Act of 1898. ! Five Tribes basically forced to become U.S. Citizens ! Their tribal governments were abolished
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What About Immigrants? ! Immigrants did not have to become U.S. citizens. ! Immigrants could become citizens via Naturalization. ! Congress sets “Naturalization Law” for U.S. ! Who was eligible for Naturalization? ! 1791-1865: “free white persons” ! 1865-1900: “free white persons and persons of African descent” ! The Reconstruction law excluded Asians ! They were free to come ! But not able to become citizens
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Immigration, ca. 1865-1915 ! The Borders were open. All were welcome. No restrictions. ! Vast majority were from European nations (80+%) ! Not all were welcomed: Irish, Italians, Jews, Greeks ! BUT . . . they were legally white, so they could become naturalized citizens. ! Mexican border was fluid, no restrictions, despite discrimination ! Chinese immigrants in California faced crisis after 1869 ! TransAtlantic Railroad completed in 1869 !
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