The average annual radiation dose is only about 027 rem About 80 of this

The average annual radiation dose is only about 027

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The average annual radiation dose is only about 0.27 rem. About 80% of this background radiation comes from natural sources the remaining 20% comes from medical procedures and from consumer products.
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Stable and Unstable IsotopesAn atom is stableif the forces among the particles that make up the nucleus are balanced. An atom is unstable (radioactive)if these forces are unbalanced--if the nucleus has an excess of internal energy. Unstable atoms are called radioisotopes.The instability of a radioisotope's nucleus may result from an excess of either neutrons or protons.
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Table 15.02Fig. 15.14
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Nuclides and RadionuclidesNuclide= the nucleus of a specific isotope. Each nuclide has a unique set of characteristics(1) number of protons, (2) number of neutrons, (3) energy state.If any of these characteristics change, the atom becomes a different nuclide (~3,700 nuclides have been identified). Most of them are radionuclides, meaning they are unstable nucleus of a radioisotope and undergo nuclear decay.All isotopes of elements with atomic numbers higher than that of bismuth (83) are radioactive.
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15-1215.2 Nuclear ReactionsTwo conditions must be met to balance a nuclear equation:1.Conservation of mass number2.Conservation of nuclear charge (atomic number)Examples:Nuclear decay: The spontaneous emission of a particle from an unstable nucleus.Radioactive nucleus new nucleus + radiationTransmutation: The change of one element into another.
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