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Egypt has a normative culture (score of 7) which is considered very low. People in these cultures
COMPARING THE MIDDLE EAST 11value time-honored traditions and are hesitant to change. Lastly, Egypt is a very restrained country (with a score of 4). Cultures with a low score tend to be cynical and pessimistic. They tend to have the perception that their actions are restrained by social norms and therefore will not indulge themselves(Geert Holfstede).Jerusalem, Israel`Israel is the only country in the world where the size of the immigrant groups are so large that they influence the dominant values. The new citizens change Israel’s existing values. Power distance within Israel is considered low (with a score of 13). Israelis believe in independency, equal rights, accessible superiors within the workplace. Power is dispersed and managers will often count on the experience of their team members. Workplaces have an informal atmosphere with direct communication and employees expect to be consulted before any changes happen. TheIsraeli society is a blend of individualist and collectivistic cultures (with a score of 54). It is very dependent on specific people which they prefer. Israel is neither a clear masculine nor feminine society (score of 47). There are some aspects where the society is more masculine because performance is highly valued, status is shown, and managers are expected to be decisive. Israel has a high uncertainty avoidance (score of 81). Cultures with a high score on this dimension are often very expressive, time is money, people are often busy and work hard, and precision is considered the norm. Israel has a low score for long term orientation (31). Israelis tend to have normative thoughts and value tradition (Geert Hofsteade). Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia has a high score for power distance (score of 95) which means that people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and needs no further justification. Saudi Arabia
COMPARING THE MIDDLE EAST 12is considered a collectivistic society, and values close-long term commitments (Just like in Egypt).Saudi Arabia is considered a masculine society (with a score of 60). In Masculine countries people“live in order to work”, and managers are expected to be decisive and assertive. Conflicts are resolved by fighting them out. Saudi Arabia has a preference for avoiding uncertainty (scores 80). Countries with high uncertainty avoidance maintain strict codes of belief and behavior and are intolerant of untraditional behaviors and ideas. Saudi Arabia's score of 52 does not point to a clearpreference on whether it is an indulgent society or restrained. Lastly, Saudi Arabia is considered a normative culture (with a score of 36). The value tradition and normative thinking (Geert Hofsteade).