Sampling techniques rarely reveal them settlement

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sampling techniques rarely reveal them Settlement pattern analysis generally works best with 100% coverage, so patterns can be seen Gross patterning : what kinds of sites are where? are there sub-regions associated with different kinds of sites (farming villages vs. hunting camps; different ethnic groups, etc.)? did the preferred locations of sites shift over time? due to changing environment? economic specializations like fishing vs. farming? building of canals? etc. did overall population rise, fall, or remain constant? are sites associated with certain artificial features, like roads or canals? this can help to date otherwise enigmatic features and to suggest what they were for this level of settlement pattern analysis can often work with sampled data Catchment analysis : what resources were sites located near? simply draw a circle of "x" km radius around each site on a map that shows ecological zones or other distributions of resources measure the area of each kind of resource zone within the given distance from the site this gives a rough idea of what resources were probably important to the people at the site slightly better way: draw the boundaries according to walking time, rather than simple distance some terrain may be harder to cross, or there may be natural barriers like rivers or cliffs what if the circles intersect (as they probably will, unless the region is seriously underpopulated)?
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Introduction to Archaeology F 2002 / Owen: Finding sites and reading culture from maps p. 5 use Thiessen polygons : a way of dividing up the landscape into areas that probably "belonged to" each site simplest way: draw lines connected each site to every other nearby site draw a perpendicular line bisecting each of the connecting lines these form polygons such that the area within each is closer to the site in the polygon's center than to any other site slightly more sophisticated way: estimate the size or population of each site rather than bisecting the connecting lines, divide the connecting line proportionally to the size or area of the sites (farther away from bigger sites, closer to smaller sites) there are computer programs for doing this sort of work Site size hierarchies : do site sizes reveal something about political organization? sites all the same size would suggest an unspecialized society in which all settlements had similar functions a few large sites and many small ones would suggest that the large sites might have had some additional functions that the small ones didn't like a temple, royal palace, marketplace, craft workshops, etc. even without any other information, such a pattern of site sizes suggests a more complex social, political, and/or economic organization usually presented as a "rank-size" graph with site size on the vertical axis (usually logarithmic) and site size "rank" on the horizontal axis (that is, first on the left is the largest site, next is the second largest, etc.
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  • Fall '02
  • BruceOwen
  • Archaeology, representative, sites, Roman coliseum, Bruce Owen

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