Chapter 14 inequality and ascription 2226

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Chapter 14: Inequality and Ascription 22:26 Discrimination Merton’s Typology of Prejudice and Discrimination Type of person: discriminate, prejudice Bigot :                      yes,          yes Timid Bigot :              no,           yes Fair-Weather egalitarian : yes,      no All-Weather egalitarian : no,            no Gordon Allport 5 types of discriminatory behaviors (least to most): Verbal rejection:  using derogatory nouns to refer to people in particular groups; telling  ethnic jokes Avoidance:  avoiding interaction with people from particular groups Active discrimination:  acting to exclude members of particular groups from education,  employment, housing, political, or recreational opportunities Physical attacks:  using violence or threat of violence against members of particular  groups or their property, such as burning churches or desecrating graves Extermination:  participating in lynchings, massacres, genocide, or pogroms 2 levels of discrimination: individual-  individual discriminates against another individual (or group) institutional-  denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that  results from normal operation of society ex. Height requirement in police dept. geared toward average height of white male “Isms” “isms”  categories: ageism, anti-Semitism, heterosexism, racism, sexism
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Chapter 14: Inequality and Ascription 22:26 Discriminatory acts are “isms” when source is dominant and target is minority, but not  reversed. Ex. Women’s verbal criticism of men is an act of resistance, not sexism Any person may be target of discrimination, but the act may not be regarded as an  “ism”. Members of dominate group perceive  loss of advantage as discrimination Cumulative impact of encounters with racist behavior has  pyramiding effect Social Construction of Minority Groups Polygenism - belief that difference races evolved from different origins, that different  races constituted different subspecies of humanity No “real” definition of a race exists, it is interpreted differently throughout different  societies. Race-  socially constructed attribute that is tied to beliefs about differences in physical  makeup of different individuals Ethnicity-  shared cultural heritage such as religion, language, dress, music, and food  preferences/or how social group is perceived Gender Margaret Mead Wrote Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies Studied differences between gender personalities in 3 separate tribes: Arapesh-  all members had woman-like behavior Mundugumor-  all members had men-like behavior Tchambuli - men had woman behavior, women had men behavior Concluded  we no longer have any basis for regarding such aspects of behavior as sex- linked.  Differences Sex differences-  physical and biological (biological)
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