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tastes may change as they learn to expand what they were required or taught to eat in childhood. This may be the result of new tastes they acquire through travel and other opportunities to try different cuisines, including exotic foods from other cultures. The expression of changing food tastes through life may be not unlike the develop-ment of sexual individuality. 331 Sexual individuality, also developed through our senses, gives us signals about our attractions and bodily arousal. As we saw earlier, some people may experience a gap between their bodily attractions and their expressed sexual behavior. That may be partly due to compulsory hetero-sexuality, or to the lack of integration of their orientation with their sexual individuality, including their awareness of their bodily attractions (Herdt & McClintock, 2000). As people mature they become aware of a larger range of sexual feelings, attractions, and expressions. Additionally, over time, they may choose to integrate this awareness or not into their unique sexual individuality to support holis-tic sexual health and well-being. According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP, 201 1 ) literally millions of children in the United States and Western Europe have LGBTQ parents. Research shows that these children are no more likely to be gay than children with heterosexual parents.
332 HUMAN SEXUALITY Sexual individuality leads to this question: Will children brought up in a household headed by a gay or lesbian couple become gay or lesbian? (Erzen, 2006; Savin-Williams, 2005; Vrangalova & Savin-Williams, 2012). Considerable controversy exists over whether someone can actually be socialized as LG BTQ or whether someone can teach someone else to be gay (Badgett, 2009; Stacey & Biblarz, 2001). There is much evidence to the contrary (Patterson, 2006). No evidence supports the idea that parental sexual orienta-tion influences that of their children (Herdt & Kertzner, 2006; Patterson, 2006; Stacey & Biblarz, 2001). In fact, studies of the children of LGBTQ people prove the point, as studied later in the chapter. We have explored sources of sexual orientation among other issues. Let's now exam-ine how some cultures have channeled the expression of same-sex attractions across his-tory. When we consider how past cultures practiced the integration of sexual expression, we may be better able to understand the full spectrum of sexual orientation across time and space. VARIATIONS IN SEXUAL ORIENTATION Try this thought experiment: Imagine growing up in a society that has no categories of sexual orientation. In this imaginary society, you would be categorized not by your inter-nal attractions or external identity. Rather, you would be an individual involved in the rich web of social life and institutions into which you were born: gender, economy, extended family, religious community, and other social or military groups. That was the situation in ancient and traditional societies and even in modern society in the United States until the 20th century (Greenberg, 1988). It is also remains common in many non-Western