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36Billions of years from now, the Moon will be farther from the Earth. How will eclipses be different? A.More solar eclipses will be annular instead of total.Farther away, the Moon will have a smaller angular size and so will not completely cover up the Sun. The eccentricity of the Moon’s orbit will still mean that there will be some variation, allowing occasional total solar eclipses – until the Moon is just too far away to ever completely “cover up” the Sun.B.More solar eclipses will be total instead of annular C.Lunar eclipses will occur more often – no, the timing depends on frequency of the lining up of the Earth, Sun and Moon – that will still happen about twice per year. D.Eclipses will not be different at all – oh yes they will!37Imagine that the Earth’s orbit is exactly – perfectly - circular. How would this affect the seasons? A.We would no longer experience the different seasons. B.We would still experience the seasons, but the difference would be much LESS noticeable. C.We would still experience seasons, but the difference would be much MORE noticeable. D.Little would change - we would continue to experience seasons in the same way we do now. Earth’s seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth’s spin axis. The effect of the small eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit on the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth is tiny – as you will learn by the end of the semester by making all those measurements of the Sun each week in the labs. 38 Galileo observed all of the following. Which observation offered direct proof of a planet orbiting the Sun? A.The Milky Way is composed of many individual stars. B.Patterns of shadow and sunlight near the dividing line between the light and dark portions of the Moon's face C.Phases of Venus D.Four moons of Jupiter. 39What, if anything, is wrong with the planetary orbit (looking directly down on the orbit) shown below?