Is to address the origin of the pain and in the case

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is to address the origin of the pain, and in the case of psychological pain it is to be  hoped that future human societies will have the understanding and capability of caring  for and nurturing all their individual members in such a way that defense mechanisms  are no longer necessary. References American Psychiatric Association. 1994.  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental  Disorders DSM-IV . Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.  ISBN  0890420629 Boeree, C. George. 1998.  Anna Freud . Retrieved February 28, 2018. Cramer, Phebe. 2006.  Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action . The  Guilford Press.  ISBN 1593852983 Fonagy, P. and M. Target. 2003.  Psychoanalytic Theories: Perspectives from  Developmental Psychopathology . Routledge.  ISBN 0415934885 Freud, A. 1993.  The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense.  Karnac Books.  ISBN  0946439850 Gray, Paul. 2005.  The Ego and Analysis of Defense . Jason Aronson.  ISBN  076570336X Vaillant, George E. 1977.  Adaptation to life . Boston, MA: Little, Brown.  ISBN  0316895202 Vaillant, George E. 1992.  Ego Mechanisms of Defense: A Guide for Clinicians and  Researchers . American Psychiatric Publishing.  ISBN 0880484047 External Links All links retrieved February 28, 2018. Garrett, F.  Addiction and Its Mechanisms of Defense.  Behavioral Medicine Associates Heffner, C.L.  Chapter 3: Section 6: Freud’s Ego Defense Mechanisms  Psychology  101. AllPsych. Niolon, R.  Defenses.  PsychPage. Dombeck, Mark, and Jolyn Wells-Moran.  Coping Strategies and Defense  Mechanisms: Basic and Intermediate Defenses MentalHealth.net. Cherry, Kendra.  20 Common Defense Mechanisms Used for Anxiety  Verywell.com
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