is to address the origin of the pain, and in the case of psychological pain it is to be hoped that future human societies will have the understanding and capability of caring for and nurturing all their individual members in such a way that defense mechanisms are no longer necessary.ReferencesAmerican Psychiatric Association. 1994. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. ISBN 0890420629Boeree, C. George. 1998. Anna Freud. Retrieved February 28, 2018.Cramer, Phebe. 2006. Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action. The Guilford Press. ISBN 1593852983Fonagy, P. and M. Target. 2003. Psychoanalytic Theories: Perspectives from Developmental Psychopathology. Routledge. ISBN 0415934885Freud, A. 1993. The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense. Karnac Books. ISBN 0946439850Gray, Paul. 2005. The Ego and Analysis of Defense. Jason Aronson. ISBN 076570336XVaillant, George E. 1977. Adaptation to life. Boston, MA: Little, Brown. ISBN 0316895202Vaillant, George E. 1992. Ego Mechanisms of Defense: A Guide for Clinicians and Researchers. American Psychiatric Publishing. ISBN 0880484047External LinksAll links retrieved February 28, 2018.Garrett, F. Addiction and Its Mechanisms of Defense. Behavioral Medicine AssociatesHeffner, C.L. Chapter 3: Section 6: Freud’s Ego Defense Mechanisms Psychology 101. AllPsych.Niolon, R. Defenses. PsychPage.Dombeck, Mark, and Jolyn Wells-Moran. Coping Strategies and Defense Mechanisms: Basic and Intermediate DefensesMentalHealth.net.Cherry, Kendra. 20 Common Defense Mechanisms Used for Anxiety Verywell.com
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