•Carpetbaggers: also a term of mockery, but applied to Northerners who went South during Reconstruction, motivated by either profit or idealism. The name referred to the cloth bags many of them used for transporting their possessions. Despite the negative connotation of the name, many carpetbaggers were sincerely interested in aiding the freedom and education of the former slaves.•Scalawags: a derogatory term applied to native white Southerners who supported the federal reconstruction plan and cooperated with the blacks in order to achieve their ends. •Some of the scalawags were entirely above board, having opposed the Confederacy in earlier times and later wanted a new South to emerge from the rubble. Others cooperated with or served in the Republican governments in order to avail themselves of money-making opportunities.
ScalawagsA Sept. 1868 cartoon in Alabama's Independent Monitor,threatening that the KKK would lynch scalawags (left) and carpetbaggers (right) on March 4, 1869, predicted as the first day of Democrat Horatio Seymour’s Presidency (a day that actually went to Ulysses S. Grant).
Cont.•As a result, African-Americans were represented in the Congress for the first time in American history in 1870.•Although there were some gains in political and civil rights by African Americans in the early 1870s, by the time Grant left office in 1877, conservatives in the South had regained control of state governments, while most blacks lost their political power for nearly a century. •The Compromise of 1877 gave Rutherford B. Hayes the presidency in exchange for the end of Reconstruction in the South.
Rutherford B. Hayes In Office: March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
Compromise of 1877•The Compromise of 1877 gave Rutherford B. Hayes the presidency in exchange for the end of Reconstruction in the South. •Democrats agreed that Rutherford B. Hayes would become president in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the South and the granting of home rule in the South.•President Hayes’ withdrawal of federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina marked a major turning point in American political history, effectively ending the Reconstruction Era and issuing in the system of Jim Crow.
This Thomas Nast cartoon, published in 1864, suggested that compromising with the South was tantamount to betraying the Union dead.Image courtesy Library of Congress.
The end of Reconstruction•In all, with the Compromise of 1877, the Republican Party abandoned the last remnant of its support for equal rights for African Americans in the South. •With the withdrawal of federal troops went any hope of reconstructing the South as a racially-egalitarian society after the end of slavery. •As Henry Adams, a black Louisianan, lamented, “The whole South—every state in the South—had got into the hands of the very men that held us as slaves.