Antiperistalsis does it opposite direction eg

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antiperistalsis does it opposite direction eg ruminants Stomach and Intestines = abdominal cavity (except very distally) - Stomach: stores and mixes ingested food - Small intestine: enzymic digestion and nutrient absorption - Large intestine: reabsorb water and electrolytes; microbial fermentation; indigestible remains pass out as faeces - Abdominal cavity lined by peritoneum – parietal and visceral o Protective, immunological roles and stores fat - Small intestine suspended from root of mesentery o Prevent twisting - Rib cage covers the cranial abdomen GIT: stomach, small intestine, large intestine Stomach: - Dilated part of GIT - Initiate digestion
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- For carnivores, separated into 2 discrete parts (1+2+3) and (4) 1. Cardia 2. Fundus 3. Body 4. Pyloric part (narrower) Histology – stomach / abomasum(ruminants) have mucosal glands throughout at the two ends; acids @ parietal cells; enzymes secreted from chief cells; hormone produced too Ruminant stomach: forestomach: reticulum (and rumen carry out most microbial fermentation, hexagonal), rumen (biggest, tongue-like), omasum (high absorptivity of liquid); true(glandular): abomasum Small intestine: 1. Duodenum: u-shaped 2. Jejunum: fans out from root of mesentery 3. Illium Histology: large SA:vol for absorption – folds with villi that have microvilli - Brush border with unstirred water layer (enzymes secreted) and glycocalyx on top, absorption carried out Large intestine Caecum: junction between small intestine and colon; relatively large/greater volume in herbivores and omnivores– fermentation: diet- significant amount of vegetation Ascending / descending colon: cattle have a spiral ascending colon, allows some fermentation too; spiral for pigs Rectum Anal canal Liver: biggest gland - Produces bile fpr lipid emulsification - Protein, carbs, fat metabolism - Detoxification Anatomical: - Irregular, lobed - Hepatic portal vein* & hepatic artery – dual blood supply - *bringing product of digestion from intestine, spleen, pancreas - Gall bladder, not in horse, lies between lobes, stores bile Pancreas v-shaped - Exocrine (digestive) function: o Produces digestive juice, into proximal part of duodenum- enzymic break down of proteins, carbs, fats, and bicarbonate - Endocrine function o Produce insulin, glucagon etc. mainly for carb metabolism Overview
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Carnivore: simple stomach, relatively short intestines, caecum short w/ no sig function Insectivore: a type of carnivore, no caecum Herbivores: hindgut fermenter (horse/ rabbit) break down of cellulose- large caecum + colon Herbivore: foregut fermenter (sheep/cow) complex, large volume stomach for fermentation, enzyme/ acid produced in abomasum; relatively long intestines, well developed caecum and colon DIGESTION – CRANIAL COMPONENTS OF DIGESTION (08/05/18)
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Digestion: transfer nutrients water electrolytes from external to internal environment, breaking down of large nutrient molecules (increase SA) to be able to be absorbed into the GIT As animals need energy to grow and repair tissues Different animals, different diets, different GIT structures Urea is used for microbes for fermentation
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  • Large intestine, Monogastric stomach motility

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